Integrating Construction Practices and Weather Into Freeze Thaw Specifications

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General Information
Study Number: TPF-5(448)
Lead Organization: Oklahoma Transportation
Solicitation Number: 1508
Partners: CA, CO, IADOT, ID, IL, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NY, OK, PADOT, WI
Status: Cleared by FHWA
Est. Completion Date: Jul 31, 2023
Contract/Other Number:
Last Updated: Jul 19, 2021
Contract End Date:
Financial Summary
Contract Amount:
Total Commitments Received: $740,000.00
100% SP&R Approval: Approved
Contact Information
Lead Study Contact(s): Ron Curb
rcurb@odot.org
Phone: 405-420-9163
FHWA Technical Liaison(s): Ahmad Ardani
Ahmad.Ardani@dot.gov
Phone: 202- 493-3422
Organization Year Commitments Technical Contact Name Funding Contact Name Contact Number Email Address
California Department of Transportation $0.00
Colorado Department of Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 Eric Prieve David Reeves 303-757-9518 david.reeves@state.co.us
Colorado Department of Transportation 2022 $20,000.00 Eric Prieve David Reeves 303-757-9518 david.reeves@state.co.us
Colorado Department of Transportation 2023 $20,000.00 Eric Prieve David Reeves 303-757-9518 david.reeves@state.co.us
Idaho Department of Transportation 2020 $60,000.00 Craig Wielenga Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Illinois Department of Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 James Krstulovich Megan Swanson 217-782-3547 Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov
Illinois Department of Transportation 2022 $20,000.00 James Krstulovich Megan Swanson 217-782-3547 Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov
Illinois Department of Transportation 2023 $20,000.00 James Krstulovich Megan Swanson 217-782-3547 Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov
Iowa Department of Transportation 2020 $20,000.00 Todd Hanson Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 Todd Hanson Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2022 $20,000.00 Todd Hanson Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Kansas Department of Transportation 2020 $20,000.00 Dan Wadley David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 Dan Wadley David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2022 $20,000.00 Dan Wadley David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2020 $20,000.00 Maria Masten Debbie Sinclair 651-336-3746 debbie.sinclair@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 Maria Masten Debbie Sinclair 651-336-3746 debbie.sinclair@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2022 $20,000.00 Maria Masten Debbie Sinclair 651-336-3746 debbie.sinclair@state.mn.us
Missouri Department of Transportation 2020 $20,000.00 Brett Trautman Jennifer Harper 573-526-3636 Jennifer.Harper@modot.mo.gov
Missouri Department of Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 Brett Trautman Jennifer Harper 573-526-3636 Jennifer.Harper@modot.mo.gov
Missouri Department of Transportation 2022 $20,000.00 Brett Trautman Jennifer Harper 573-526-3636 Jennifer.Harper@modot.mo.gov
Nebraska Department of Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 Wallace Heyen Mark Fischer (402) 479-3163 Mark.fischer@nebraska.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2020 $20,000.00 Dan Dennis Gail Carpenter 518-457-8083 Gail.Carpenter@dot.ny.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 Dan Dennis Gail Carpenter 518-457-8083 Gail.Carpenter@dot.ny.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2022 $20,000.00 Dan Dennis Gail Carpenter 518-457-8083 Gail.Carpenter@dot.ny.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2020 $20,000.00 TJ Murphy Amy Beise 701-328-6921 abeise@nd.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 TJ Murphy Amy Beise 701-328-6921 abeise@nd.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2022 $20,000.00 TJ Murphy Amy Beise 701-328-6921 abeise@nd.gov
Oklahoma Transportation 2020 $0.00 Gary Hook Ron Curb (405)420-9163 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 Gary Hook Ron Curb (405)420-9163 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2022 $20,000.00 Gary Hook Ron Curb (405)420-9163 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2023 $20,000.00 Gary Hook Ron Curb (405)420-9163 rcurb@odot.org
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2020 $20,000.00 Patricia Baer Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 Patricia Baer Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2022 $20,000.00 Patricia Baer Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2020 $20,000.00 James Parry Ethan Severson 608-266-1457 ethanp.severson@dot.wi.gov
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 James Parry Ethan Severson 608-266-1457 ethanp.severson@dot.wi.gov
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2022 $20,000.00 James Parry Ethan Severson 608-266-1457 ethanp.severson@dot.wi.gov

Study Description

It has been suggested that the freeze-thaw behavior of concrete can be related to the rate at which the concrete absorbs water and reaches a critical degree of saturation. After the critical degree of saturation is reached and frozen the sample begins to crack and the stiffness degrades rapidly. This mechanism was suggested by Fagerlund and then expanded by research completed under pooled fund - TPF-5-297. Despite these advancements, there is still more work that is needed.

Current design practices for freeze thaw durability are not based on actual weather conditions and are instead based on artificial conditions created in ASTM C 666 testing of concrete. While these conditions seem to have been conservative, a better answer could be obtained if there was more information about how concrete wetted and dried in different environments. This research will use a novel way to measure this by combining low-cost data loggers to measure the moisture and temperature changes in a concrete sent to a number of different environments. This information will be combined with new models that account for the rate that concrete reaches a critical degree of saturation. This work will create specifications that are tailored for different weather conditions and also create a useful forensic tool that could be used to determine the loss in the life of a structure if a substandard concrete is placed.

Freeze thaw damage can be suppressed by casting a small and well distributed bubble system in the concrete. The Super Air Meter (SAM) is a new method to measure the size and spacing of these bubbles while the concrete is still fresh by using sequential pressures. Under pooled fund TPF-5-297 the validity of the SAM was established in the lab and the field as well as several new tools were developed to improve the accuracy of the method. Testing was then done to investigate how different construction methods impact the air void system such as pumping. This work will aim to continue to develop the SAM and how different construction practices impact the air void system in fresh concrete.

Objectives

The ultimate goal of this work is to build on previous research efforts to produce improved specifications and advance existing test methods; while, improve the underlying understanding of freeze thaw damage. This work will specifically focus on construction practices and the impact of weather.

Scope of Work

The objectives of the proposed pooled funded study are as follows:

1. Quantify how different weather conditions impact the freeze thaw performance of concrete with low-cost data loggers. This work has been started under this existing project but these samples should be distributed in the field and used to quantify the combination of saturation and freeze thaw cycles in different states.

2. Investigate the freeze thaw performance of existing structures in different climates with different air void qualities. In combination with quantifying the weather in different environments, structures should be found in these structures with different quality of air void systems to determine how they perform. This will provide true case studies of field performance in a quantified exposure.

3. Expand the freeze thaw model to a larger range of mixtures to see if the trends still hold.

4. Further evaluation of the accuracy of the modeling predictions for determining the matrix saturation and the relationship between the secondary sorption and formation factor.

5. Better understand the damage propagation after critical saturation is reached.

6. Extension of this work to include salts such as those that result in calcium oxychloride to further improve the computational modeling predictions.

7. Determine how air void filling impacts the durability of concrete from freeze thaw cycles.

8. Develop freeze thaw specifications based on concrete quality, air void system, and local weather conditions.

9. Determine how construction methods such as pumping, mixing time, paving vibration, and hand held vibrators impact the air void spacing within concrete

10. Improve the SAM by making the measurement more consistent through developing a semi-automated testing procedure and improving reliability prediction.

11. Further refine a rapid test method that measures the uptake and fluid and resistivity of the concrete to determine the freeze thaw durability of concrete

Deliverables:

This proposed work will answer a number of important questions and will create several new tools to help determine the freeze thaw durability of concrete. Further, this work will create new specifications for DOTs based on their local weather conditions and quality of their concrete. These new efforts will create a new level of understanding and produce practical tools and guidance that will help DOTs change their specifications and consistently produce more durable concrete.

Comments

It is recommended that each state commit to the study for three years at $20,000 per year making a total commitment of $60,000 per state. To start the study it is recommended that at least eight states commit to the study. This study will be lead by Dr. Tyler Ley at Oklahoma State University.

Subjects: Bridges, Other Structures, and Hydraulics and Hydrology Materials and Construction Pavement Design, Management, and Performance

Documents Attached
Title File/Link Type Private Download
TPF-5(448) Oklahoma Lead Acceptance Letter OK Lead Acceptance Letter TPF 5 448.pdf Memorandum Public
2020 TPF5-(448) Quarter 3 Progress Report 2020 TPF5-(448) Quarter 3 Progress Report.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2020 TPF5-(448) Quarter 4 Progress Report 2020 TPF5-(448) Quarter 4 Progress Report.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2021 TPF5-(448) Quarter 1 Progress Report 2021 TPF5 (448) Quarter 1 Progress Report.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2021 TPF5-(448) Quarter 2 Progress Report 2021 TPF5-(448) Quarter 2 Progress Report.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public

Integrating Construction Practices and Weather Into Freeze Thaw Specifications

General Information
Study Number: TPF-5(448)
Lead Organization: Oklahoma Transportation
Solicitation Number: 1508
Partners: CA, CO, IADOT, ID, IL, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NY, OK, PADOT, WI
Status: Cleared by FHWA
Est. Completion Date: Jul 31, 2023
Contract/Other Number:
Last Updated: Jul 19, 2021
Contract End Date:
Financial Summary
Contract Amount:
Total Commitments Received: $740,000.00
100% SP&R Approval:
Contact Information
Lead Study Contact(s): Ron Curb
rcurb@odot.org
Phone: 405-420-9163
FHWA Technical Liaison(s): Ahmad Ardani
Ahmad.Ardani@dot.gov
Phone: 202- 493-3422
Commitments by Organizations
Organization Year Commitments Technical Contact Name Funding Contact Name Contact Number Email Address
Colorado Department of Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 Eric Prieve David Reeves 303-757-9518 david.reeves@state.co.us
Colorado Department of Transportation 2022 $20,000.00 Eric Prieve David Reeves 303-757-9518 david.reeves@state.co.us
Colorado Department of Transportation 2023 $20,000.00 Eric Prieve David Reeves 303-757-9518 david.reeves@state.co.us
Idaho Department of Transportation 2020 $60,000.00 Craig Wielenga Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Illinois Department of Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 James Krstulovich Megan Swanson 217-782-3547 Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov
Illinois Department of Transportation 2022 $20,000.00 James Krstulovich Megan Swanson 217-782-3547 Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov
Illinois Department of Transportation 2023 $20,000.00 James Krstulovich Megan Swanson 217-782-3547 Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov
Iowa Department of Transportation 2020 $20,000.00 Todd Hanson Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 Todd Hanson Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2022 $20,000.00 Todd Hanson Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Kansas Department of Transportation 2020 $20,000.00 Dan Wadley David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 Dan Wadley David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2022 $20,000.00 Dan Wadley David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2020 $20,000.00 Maria Masten Debbie Sinclair 651-336-3746 debbie.sinclair@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 Maria Masten Debbie Sinclair 651-336-3746 debbie.sinclair@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2022 $20,000.00 Maria Masten Debbie Sinclair 651-336-3746 debbie.sinclair@state.mn.us
Missouri Department of Transportation 2020 $20,000.00 Brett Trautman Jennifer Harper 573-526-3636 Jennifer.Harper@modot.mo.gov
Missouri Department of Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 Brett Trautman Jennifer Harper 573-526-3636 Jennifer.Harper@modot.mo.gov
Missouri Department of Transportation 2022 $20,000.00 Brett Trautman Jennifer Harper 573-526-3636 Jennifer.Harper@modot.mo.gov
Nebraska Department of Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 Wallace Heyen Mark Fischer (402) 479-3163 Mark.fischer@nebraska.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2020 $20,000.00 Dan Dennis Gail Carpenter 518-457-8083 Gail.Carpenter@dot.ny.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 Dan Dennis Gail Carpenter 518-457-8083 Gail.Carpenter@dot.ny.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2022 $20,000.00 Dan Dennis Gail Carpenter 518-457-8083 Gail.Carpenter@dot.ny.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2020 $20,000.00 TJ Murphy Amy Beise 701-328-6921 abeise@nd.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 TJ Murphy Amy Beise 701-328-6921 abeise@nd.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2022 $20,000.00 TJ Murphy Amy Beise 701-328-6921 abeise@nd.gov
Oklahoma Transportation 2020 $0.00 Gary Hook Ron Curb (405)420-9163 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 Gary Hook Ron Curb (405)420-9163 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2022 $20,000.00 Gary Hook Ron Curb (405)420-9163 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2023 $20,000.00 Gary Hook Ron Curb (405)420-9163 rcurb@odot.org
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2020 $20,000.00 Patricia Baer Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 Patricia Baer Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2022 $20,000.00 Patricia Baer Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2020 $20,000.00 James Parry Ethan Severson 608-266-1457 ethanp.severson@dot.wi.gov
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2021 $20,000.00 James Parry Ethan Severson 608-266-1457 ethanp.severson@dot.wi.gov
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2022 $20,000.00 James Parry Ethan Severson 608-266-1457 ethanp.severson@dot.wi.gov

Study Description

Study Description

It has been suggested that the freeze-thaw behavior of concrete can be related to the rate at which the concrete absorbs water and reaches a critical degree of saturation. After the critical degree of saturation is reached and frozen the sample begins to crack and the stiffness degrades rapidly. This mechanism was suggested by Fagerlund and then expanded by research completed under pooled fund - TPF-5-297. Despite these advancements, there is still more work that is needed.

Current design practices for freeze thaw durability are not based on actual weather conditions and are instead based on artificial conditions created in ASTM C 666 testing of concrete. While these conditions seem to have been conservative, a better answer could be obtained if there was more information about how concrete wetted and dried in different environments. This research will use a novel way to measure this by combining low-cost data loggers to measure the moisture and temperature changes in a concrete sent to a number of different environments. This information will be combined with new models that account for the rate that concrete reaches a critical degree of saturation. This work will create specifications that are tailored for different weather conditions and also create a useful forensic tool that could be used to determine the loss in the life of a structure if a substandard concrete is placed.

Freeze thaw damage can be suppressed by casting a small and well distributed bubble system in the concrete. The Super Air Meter (SAM) is a new method to measure the size and spacing of these bubbles while the concrete is still fresh by using sequential pressures. Under pooled fund TPF-5-297 the validity of the SAM was established in the lab and the field as well as several new tools were developed to improve the accuracy of the method. Testing was then done to investigate how different construction methods impact the air void system such as pumping. This work will aim to continue to develop the SAM and how different construction practices impact the air void system in fresh concrete.

Objectives

The ultimate goal of this work is to build on previous research efforts to produce improved specifications and advance existing test methods; while, improve the underlying understanding of freeze thaw damage. This work will specifically focus on construction practices and the impact of weather.

Scope of Work

The objectives of the proposed pooled funded study are as follows:

1. Quantify how different weather conditions impact the freeze thaw performance of concrete with low-cost data loggers. This work has been started under this existing project but these samples should be distributed in the field and used to quantify the combination of saturation and freeze thaw cycles in different states.

2. Investigate the freeze thaw performance of existing structures in different climates with different air void qualities. In combination with quantifying the weather in different environments, structures should be found in these structures with different quality of air void systems to determine how they perform. This will provide true case studies of field performance in a quantified exposure.

3. Expand the freeze thaw model to a larger range of mixtures to see if the trends still hold.

4. Further evaluation of the accuracy of the modeling predictions for determining the matrix saturation and the relationship between the secondary sorption and formation factor.

5. Better understand the damage propagation after critical saturation is reached.

6. Extension of this work to include salts such as those that result in calcium oxychloride to further improve the computational modeling predictions.

7. Determine how air void filling impacts the durability of concrete from freeze thaw cycles.

8. Develop freeze thaw specifications based on concrete quality, air void system, and local weather conditions.

9. Determine how construction methods such as pumping, mixing time, paving vibration, and hand held vibrators impact the air void spacing within concrete

10. Improve the SAM by making the measurement more consistent through developing a semi-automated testing procedure and improving reliability prediction.

11. Further refine a rapid test method that measures the uptake and fluid and resistivity of the concrete to determine the freeze thaw durability of concrete

Deliverables:

This proposed work will answer a number of important questions and will create several new tools to help determine the freeze thaw durability of concrete. Further, this work will create new specifications for DOTs based on their local weather conditions and quality of their concrete. These new efforts will create a new level of understanding and produce practical tools and guidance that will help DOTs change their specifications and consistently produce more durable concrete.

Comments

It is recommended that each state commit to the study for three years at $20,000 per year making a total commitment of $60,000 per state. To start the study it is recommended that at least eight states commit to the study. This study will be lead by Dr. Tyler Ley at Oklahoma State University.

Subjects: Bridges, Other Structures, and Hydraulics and Hydrology Materials and Construction Pavement Design, Management, and Performance

Title File/Link Type Private
TPF-5(448) Oklahoma Lead Acceptance Letter OK Lead Acceptance Letter TPF 5 448.pdf Memorandum Public
2020 TPF5-(448) Quarter 3 Progress Report 2020 TPF5-(448) Quarter 3 Progress Report.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2020 TPF5-(448) Quarter 4 Progress Report 2020 TPF5-(448) Quarter 4 Progress Report.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2021 TPF5-(448) Quarter 1 Progress Report 2021 TPF5 (448) Quarter 1 Progress Report.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2021 TPF5-(448) Quarter 2 Progress Report 2021 TPF5-(448) Quarter 2 Progress Report.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public

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