|Former Study Number:|
|Lead Organization:||Minnesota Department of Transportation|
|Partners:||FHWA, GADOT, IL, MN, MO, MS, TN, TX|
|Status:||Cleared by FHWA|
|Est. Completion Date:|
|Last Updated:||Feb 01, 2023|
|Contract End Date:|
|Total Commitments Received:||$900,000.00|
|100% SP&R Approval:||Approved|
|Organization||Year||Commitments||Technical Contact Name||Funding Contact Name||Contact Number||Email Address|
|Federal Highway Administration||2023||$150,000.00||Stephen Cooper||Stephen Cooper||443-257-7145||Stephen.J.Cooper@dot.gov|
|Georgia Department of Transportation||2023||$25,000.00||Ian Rish||Brennan Roneyfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Georgia Department of Transportation||2024||$25,000.00||Ian Rish||Brennan Roneyemail@example.com|
|Georgia Department of Transportation||2025||$25,000.00||Ian Rish||Brennan Roneyfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Georgia Department of Transportation||2026||$25,000.00||Ian Rish||Brennan Roneyemail@example.com|
|Illinois Department of Transportation||2023||$25,000.00||Brian Hill||Megan Swanson||217-782-3547||Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov|
|Illinois Department of Transportation||2024||$25,000.00||Brian Hill||Megan Swanson||217-782-3547||Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov|
|Illinois Department of Transportation||2025||$25,000.00||Brian Hill||Megan Swanson||217-782-3547||Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov|
|Illinois Department of Transportation||2026||$25,000.00||Brian Hill||Megan Swanson||217-782-3547||Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov|
|Minnesota Department of Transportation||2023||$25,000.00||Eyoab Zegeye||Leif Halverson||Leif.Halverson@state.mn.us|
|Minnesota Department of Transportation||2024||$25,000.00||Eyoab Zegeye||Leif Halverson||Leif.Halverson@state.mn.us|
|Minnesota Department of Transportation||2025||$25,000.00||Eyoab Zegeye||Leif Halverson||Leif.Halverson@state.mn.us|
|Minnesota Department of Transportation||2026||$25,000.00||Eyoab Zegeye||Leif Halverson||Leif.Halverson@state.mn.us|
|Minnesota Department of Transportation||2027||$25,000.00||Eyoab Zegeye||Leif Halverson||Leif.Halverson@state.mn.us|
|Mississippi Department of Transportation||2023||$25,000.00||Griffin Sullivan||Robert Vance||RVance@mdot.ms.gov|
|Mississippi Department of Transportation||2024||$25,000.00||Griffin Sullivan||Robert Vance||RVance@mdot.ms.gov|
|Mississippi Department of Transportation||2025||$25,000.00||Griffin Sullivan||Robert Vance||RVance@mdot.ms.gov|
|Mississippi Department of Transportation||2026||$25,000.00||Griffin Sullivan||Robert Vance||RVance@mdot.ms.gov|
|Missouri Department of Transportation||2023||$25,000.00||Jason Blomberg||Jennifer Harper||573-526-3636||Jennifer.Harper@modot.mo.gov|
|Missouri Department of Transportation||2024||$25,000.00||Jason Blomberg||Jennifer Harper||573-526-3636||Jennifer.Harper@modot.mo.gov|
|Missouri Department of Transportation||2025||$25,000.00||Jason Blomberg||Jennifer Harper||573-526-3636||Jennifer.Harper@modot.mo.gov|
|Missouri Department of Transportation||2026||$25,000.00||Jason Blomberg||Jennifer Harper||573-526-3636||Jennifer.Harper@modot.mo.gov|
|Missouri Department of Transportation||2027||$25,000.00||Jason Blomberg||Jennifer Harper||573-526-3636||Jennifer.Harper@modot.mo.gov|
|Tennessee Department of Transportation||2023||$25,000.00||Xiaoyang Jia||David Lee||David.Lee@tn.gov|
|Tennessee Department of Transportation||2024||$25,000.00||Xiaoyang Jia||David Lee||David.Lee@tn.gov|
|Tennessee Department of Transportation||2025||$25,000.00||Xiaoyang Jia||David Lee||David.Lee@tn.gov|
|Tennessee Department of Transportation||2026||$25,000.00||Xiaoyang Jia||David Lee||David.Lee@tn.gov|
|Texas Department of Transportation||2023||$25,000.00||Ruben Carrasco||Ned Mattilafirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Texas Department of Transportation||2024||$25,000.00||Ruben Carrasco||Ned Mattilaemail@example.com|
|Texas Department of Transportation||2025||$25,000.00||Ruben Carrasco||Ned Mattilafirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Texas Department of Transportation||2026||$25,000.00||Ruben Carrasco||Ned Mattilaemail@example.com|
Stripping is a critical pavement subsurface distress affecting the performance and durability of asphalt pavement systems: full-depth asphalt, recycled, or composite. In full-depth asphalt pavements, stripping can be caused by moisture infiltration in the pavement system, leading to the loss of bond between the aggregate particles and the asphalt binder composing the mixture. The bond failure leads to the formation of an unbonded mixture and ultimately reduces the pavement bearing capacity. In asphalt overlays over concrete (composite), stripping is generally caused by moisture trapped in the interface above the concrete. Stripping leads to the formation of potholes, cracking, slippage cracking, tearing, and ultimately reduced strength and serviceability of pavements if not detected and addressed early.
Over the years, substantial progress has been made in developing bituminous mixtures less prone to stripping, thanks mainly to improved material selection tools, anti-stripping additives, modified asphalt binders, and improved drainage practices. However, stripping continues to be a dominant issue in pavement design and scoping processes for various reasons. To cite a few examples: a) placing new stripping-resistant mixtures on top of old bituminous mixtures that are likely to be affected by stripping; b) increased use of recycled and multi-recycled materials; and c) asphalt overlays on concrete and d) quality control-related section or spot failures (i.e., binder content deficiency).
The most challenging aspect of stripping is that it initiates at the bottom or middle of bituminous layers and propagates upward. Hence, it is almost impossible to detect and quantify at early stages through visual inspections or traditional pavement forensic investigation tools. Once the problem manifests itself on the top surface of the pavement, it is generally too late for minor localized treatments. The lack of appropriate diagnostic tools for stripping makes developing proper pavement rehabilitation plans challenging. For instance, without knowing the stripping's extent, severity, and depth, it becomes challenging to select an appropriate mill depth for a new overlay or a proper rehabilitation strategy (i.e., full reconstruction, mill and overlay, cold recycling).
Fortunately, new advanced non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are becoming increasingly accessible and suitable for solving complex pavement issues. The Strategic Highway Research Program 2 (SHRP2) study R06D (Heitzman, et al. 2012) vetted the capability of several NDE technologies to evaluate pavements affected by delamination: stripping and debonding. Debonding is a similar failure that occurs when the tacking between the pavement layers (lifts) is inadequate. However, the affected layers generally remain physically quasi-intact in debonding, while the layers exhibit full or partial deterioration in stripping. Out of eight (8) vetted tools, two (2) provided promising results for identifying and quantifying stripping: the 3D-Ground Penetrating Radar (3D-GPR), an air-launched antenna array with frequency sweep measurements and the Impact Echo/Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (IE/SASW) scanning system. Among these two technologies, 3D-GPR provided the added advantage of continuous full-lane width data collection in a single pass at safe traffic traveling speeds. Furthermore, the ability of 3D-GPR to scan full-lane width resulted in higher chances of detecting stripping locations than more traditional single-channel 2D-GPR systems. While in the case of debonding, 3D-GPR was less effective and offered good information only in wet conditions. The IE/SASW was most effective at identifying discontinuities when the pavement was cold and stiff. However, it required lane closure and did not provide continuous full-lane coverage.
After the R06D study, several states (FL, TX, NM, CA, KY and MN) participated in an Implementation Assistance Program (IAP) sponsored by FHWA and AASHTO, aimed at determining if the 3D-GPR and the IE/SASW technologies met "proof of concept" and were ready for national implementation. The study concluded that the 3D-GPR system met the criteria for high-speed data collection. The IE/SASW system significantly improved data collection speed but still requires lane closure. The IAP identified several drawbacks and concerns that need to be addressed to effectively use 3D-GPR in detecting stripping at project and network levels. The recommended needs for improvements are listed below:
· Develop standard practices for testing pavement using 3D-GPR and other companion NDE technologies such as Traffic Speed Deflectometer and Falling Weight Deflectometer
· Establish proper equipment calibration and data quality verification (i.e., coring locations and numbers) procedures to improve the accuracy of the output
· Develop a standard algorithm for automated processing of 3D-GPR data and detection of stripping. At present, identifying stripping in the bituminous layers is accomplished through a visual examination of the GPR images. This process is significantly dependent on the person's experience interpreting the images, time-consuming and labor-intensive, and difficult to adopt in state agencies' practices.
· Determine the need and benefits of linking the 3D-GPR data to other NDE technologies. 3D-GPR alone cannot identify stripping all the time and at all subsurface moisture conditions. In addition, 3D-GPR is only readily available to some road agencies. Hence, it is important to continue evaluating other NDE technologies that could fill in the blank spots of 3D-GPR. The other NDE technologies proposed for this study are TSD, FWD, 1D-GPR, IE/SASW, and PASP.
· Develop specifications and implementation plans and promote the use of 3D-GPR for testing stripping
· Facilitate communication between vendors and agencies to enable vendors to make improvements to their hardware and software
· Establish a national user group to provide a venue for experts in NDE technologies to advance GPR and other NDE technologies in local and national road authorities.
In September 2021, FHWA sponsored a well-attended Virtual Peer Exchange to gather updates on Post-R06D advancements from state agencies, universities, research institutions, consultants and vendor perspectives. The meeting noted that several state transportation agencies, including the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MNDOT), are working toward incorporating 3D-GPR in their project scoping process and addressing stripping and other subsurface pavement issues in their roadways. The group reiterated the need to address the IAP recommendations through a national pool fund study. MnDOT was selected to lead and manage the pool fund study efforts, including drafting and advancing the present proposal. MnDOT recognizes the opportunities and challenges of this effort and believes they are best addressed in collaboration with other agencies and stakeholders.
The primary objective of the proposed pooled-fund project is to develop a methodology for rapid and automatic detection of stripping in bituminous pavements using 3D-GPR and other NDE technologies. As per the IAP and R06D findings and recommendations, particular emphasis will be placed on using 3D-GPR, which is particularly suitable for high-speed continuous and lane-width data collection and is already being incorporated in project scoping processes for thickness determination. Nevertheless, other NDE technologies, such as FWD and TSD, will also be considered to complement, evaluate, verify and validate the 3D-GPR findings. Similarly, recognizing that 3D-GPR alone cannot identify stripping all the time and at all subsurface moisture conditions, the study will also investigate using IE/SASW, MIRA, and Thermal Imaging for localized spot verifications. Furthermore, the proposed pool fund study will include contemporary 2D and 3D-GPR testing on limited projects to compare and identify advantages and disadvantages. The tools (i.e., equipment, testing procedures, data processing algorithms, specifications) advanced through this project will assist state transportation agencies in rapidly and confidently detecting the extent, depth, and severity of stripping in their roads. The set goals are to be accomplished by:
· Developing a methodology for rapid and automatic stripping detection based on 3D-GPR and other NDE technologies such as Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) and Traffic Speed Deflectometer (TSD). The development will be based on the experience and needs of participants so that the developed methodology can effectively and efficiently support their pavement evaluation program.
· Developing a software for automated processing of 3D-GPR data and detection of stripping
· Verifying and validating the developed methodology on projects selected by the participating agencies. The more states, the stronger the methodology
· Providing participating agencies guidelines on data collection and analysis protocols
· Drafting AASHTO specification.
· Facilitating and supporting communication between experts in NDE technologies, state engineers and vendors to advance the use of GPR for inspecting pavement subsurface issues
· Providing training and technical assistance that includes providing support for specification development and strategies for agency full implementation
· Conducting technology promotion for the technologies
The work plan will be finalized and approved by the pool fund panel. While the details and scope of the objectives will be further defined during the first task of the project, it is anticipated that the project will include the followings:
· Task 1 – Finalizing the Scope of Work
· Task 2 – Survey and Literature Review
· Task 3 – Building GPR Signal Stripping Signature Database
· Task 4 – Building and Evaluating Artificially Stripped Section in MN ROAD
· Task 5 – Development of a Software for Automated Detection and Quantification of Stripping
· Task 6 – Data collection on Roads from Participant States
· Task 7- Review, Analysis, Data Fusion, and Interpretation of the collected data
· Task 8 – Development of AASHTO Specification - Testing and Analysis Procedures
· Task 9 – Training and Technical Assistance
· Task 10 – Support and Communication
· Task 11 – Strategic Technology Promotion
A summary of the technical and non-technical project activities is given in the diagrams below. Full description of the task item can be find in the attached document.
This project is expected to have a minimum participation of at least seven agencies. Minimum annual commitment of $25,000 per year per agency for four years within Fiscal Years 2023-2027.
|Construction plans for the stripping section built in MnROAD (draft drawings)||TPF5-504 MnROAD Test Sections.xlsx||Memorandum||Public|
|Construction plans for the stripping section built in MnROAD (draft)||MnROAD - Construction plans for the stripping section (draft).pdf||Memorandum||Public|
|TPF-5 (504) Quarterly Report - Q2 2023||TPF-5 (504) Quarterly Report 2023-Q2.pdf||Quarterly Progress Report||Public|
|TPF-5 (504) Quarterly Report - Q1 2023||TPF-5 (504) Quarterly Report 2023-Q1.pdf||Quarterly Progress Report||Public|
|Project kick-off meeting notes||Project Kickoff Meeting Notes.pdf||Other||Public|
|TPF-5(504)-Project Charter and work plan||TPF5-504 Project Charter V02_120122.pdf||Work Plan||Public|
|Letter of Acceptance||TPF-5(504) Letter of Acceptance.pdf||Memorandum||Public|
|Approval of SPR Waiver||State Led Approval SPR Waiver Memo#1569.pdf||Memorandum||Public|
|Bituminous Pavement Stripping Pooled Fund Study Proposal||MNDOT_DOCS-#15853238-v1-Bituminous_Pavement_Stripping_Pooled_Fund_Study_Proposal__Final.PDF||Work Plan||Public|