Investigation of Low Temperature Cracking in Asphalt Pavements

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General Information
Study Number: TPF-5(080)
Lead Organization: Minnesota Department of Transportation
Contract Start Date: Sep 30, 2004
Solicitation Number: 776
Partners: CT, IADOT, ID, IL, KS, MN, ND, NY, VT, WI
Contractor(s): University of Minnesota
Status: Closed
Est. Completion Date:
Contract/Other Number:
Last Updated: Dec 17, 2010
Contract End Date: Dec 31, 2007
Financial Summary
Contract Amount: $665,000.00
Total Commitments Received: $590,000.00
100% SP&R Approval: Approved
Contact Information
Lead Study Contact(s): Ben Worel
ben.worel@state.mn.us
Phone: 7633812130
Organization Year Commitments Technical Contact Name Funding Contact Name Contact Number Email Address
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2004 $5,000.00 David Kilpatrick James Sime 860-258-0309 james.sime@ct.gov
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2005 $5,000.00 David Kilpatrick James Sime 860-258-0309 james.sime@ct.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2004 $20,000.00 Mike Santi
Idaho Department of Transportation 2005 $15,000.00 Mike Santi
Idaho Department of Transportation 2006 $15,000.00 Mike Santi
Illinois Department of Transportation 2004 $50,000.00 James Trepanier David Lippert 217-782-7200 David.Lippert@illinois.gov
Iowa Department of Transportation 2004 $16,000.00 Carol Culver 515-239-1208 carol.culver@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2005 $17,000.00 Carol Culver 515-239-1208 carol.culver@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2006 $17,000.00 Carol Culver 515-239-1208 carol.culver@iowadot.us
Kansas Department of Transportation 2004 $25,000.00 Glenn Fager Rodney Montney 785-291-3844 rodney@ksdot.org
Kansas Department of Transportation 2005 $25,000.00 Glenn Fager Rodney Montney 785-291-3844 rodney@ksdot.org
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2004 $50,000.00 Ben Worel Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2005 $50,000.00 Ben Worel Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2006 $50,000.00 Ben Worel Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
New York State Department of Transportation 2004 $50,000.00 Gary Frederick Gary Frederick 518-457-4645 gary.frederick@dot.ny.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2005 $50,000.00 Gary Frederick Gary Frederick 518-457-4645 gary.frederick@dot.ny.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2004 $20,000.00 Ron Horner Ron Horner 701-328-6904 rhorner@nd.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2005 $15,000.00 Ron Horner Ron Horner 701-328-6904 rhorner@nd.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2006 $15,000.00 Ron Horner Ron Horner 701-328-6904 rhorner@nd.gov
Vermont Agency of Transportation 2004 $20,000.00 Bill Ahearn Craig Graham 802-828-6920 craig.graham@state.vt.us
Vermont Agency of Transportation 2005 $10,000.00 Bill Ahearn Craig Graham 802-828-6920 craig.graham@state.vt.us
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2004 $50,000.00 Steven Krebs Marcie Johnson

Study Description

Low temperature cracking is the most prevalent distress found in asphalt pavements built in cold weather climates. As the temperature drops the restrained pavement tries to shrink. The tensile stresses build up to a critical point when a crack is formed and partial stress relief occurs. The current Superpave specification attempts to address this issue by specifying a limiting low temperature for the asphalt binder. The specification does a reasonable job predicting performance of conventional asphalt cements, but this does not hold true for polymer-modified asphalt binders that are manufactured to reach very cold temperature grades needed in cold climates. Typically the base asphalt binder controls the low temperature properties. As an example a PG 58-34 is made with an xx-34 grade asphalt and polymer is added to achieve the high end (58). Currently the low temperature specification considers only the asphalt binder. Specifications must be developed for the complete asphalt mixture. Although low temperature cracking appears to be controlled by a single-event mechanism, it is very important to understand the mechanism of crack initiation and propagation. These cracks can be initiated by traffic loading, cycles of temperature changes, and then propagated by a large drop in temperature. In addition, the significant effects of aging and moisture on crack formation and propagation is also not fully understood and needs investigation.

Objectives

The development of a fracture-mechanics-based specification is one of the objectives of this study. It will allow for a better selection of asphalt binders and mixtures with respect to their resistance to crack formation and propagation. This fracture mechanics approach will also be used to investigate the detrimental role of aging and moisture to fracture resistance of asphalt materials.

Scope of Work

· Utilize a national Technical Advisory Panel (TAP) to assist in the selection and development of testing methods that measure fundamental material properties related to low temperature cracking.

· Collect samples and mix designs from participating states and industry and run all recommended new testing methods.

· Correlate the test results with documented field performance.

· Develop and refine the most promising new testing methods for low temperature cracking.

· Calibrate and validate the thermal cracking model in the 2002 AASHTO design guide.

· Select mix designs for the reconstruction of MnROAD. Construction and field validation at MnROAD will be completed in the next phase of the study.

Comments

It is anticipated that each state will contribute $50,000 for this project. The funds can be transferred per the agencies discretion into three possible fiscal years 2004, 2005, and 2006. Committing states are asked to do so electronically.

Subjects: Pavement Design, Management, and Performance

Documents Attached
Title File/Link Type Privacy Download
Final Report Final_Report.pdf Final Report Public
September 30th Meeting Minutes meeting_minutes_9-30-04.pdf Other Public
December 12, 2005 Meeting Minutes meeting_minutes_12-12-05.pdf Other Public
August 9, 2004 to October 15, 2004 qtrly_rpt_10-15-04.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 7/1/2004 - 9/30/2004 81655_128_Q1Fy05.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 10/1/2004 - 12/31/2004 81655_128_Q2Fy05.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 1/1/2005 - 3/31/2005 81655_128_Q3Fy05.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 4/1/2005 - 6/30/2005 81655_128_Q4Fy05.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 7/1/2005 - 9/30/2005 81655_128 FY06Q1.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 10/1/2005 - 12/31/2005 qtrly_rpt_12-31-05.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 1/1/2006 - 3/31/2006 qtrly_rpt_3-31-06.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 4/1/2006 - 6/30/2006 81655_128_Q4FY06.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 7/1/2006 - 9/30/2006 81655_128_Q1FY07.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 10/1/2006 - 12/31/2006 qtrly_rpt_12-31-06.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 1/1/2007 - 3/31/2007 qtrly_rpt_03-31-07.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 4/1/2007 - 6/30/2007 qtrly_rpt_06-30-07.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Task 2 Sampling - Identify Pavement Sites and Laboratory Materials pavement_sites_10-15-04.pdf Report Public
Executive Summary executive_summary_11-2004.pdf Study Summary Public
Work Plan work_plan.pdf Work Plan Public

Investigation of Low Temperature Cracking in Asphalt Pavements

General Information
Study Number: TPF-5(080)
Lead Organization: Minnesota Department of Transportation
Contract Start Date: Sep 30, 2004
Solicitation Number: 776
Partners: CT, IADOT, ID, IL, KS, MN, ND, NY, VT, WI
Contractor(s): University of Minnesota
Status: Closed
Est. Completion Date:
Contract/Other Number:
Last Updated: Dec 17, 2010
Contract End Date: Dec 31, 2007
Financial Summary
Contract Amount: $665,000.00
Total Commitments Received: $590,000.00
100% SP&R Approval:
Contact Information
Lead Study Contact(s): Ben Worel
ben.worel@state.mn.us
Phone: 7633812130
Commitments by Organizations
Organization Year Commitments Technical Contact Name Funding Contact Name Contact Number Email Address
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2004 $5,000.00 David Kilpatrick James Sime 860-258-0309 james.sime@ct.gov
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2005 $5,000.00 David Kilpatrick James Sime 860-258-0309 james.sime@ct.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2004 $20,000.00 Mike Santi
Idaho Department of Transportation 2005 $15,000.00 Mike Santi
Idaho Department of Transportation 2006 $15,000.00 Mike Santi
Illinois Department of Transportation 2004 $50,000.00 James Trepanier David Lippert 217-782-7200 David.Lippert@illinois.gov
Iowa Department of Transportation 2004 $16,000.00 Carol Culver 515-239-1208 carol.culver@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2005 $17,000.00 Carol Culver 515-239-1208 carol.culver@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2006 $17,000.00 Carol Culver 515-239-1208 carol.culver@iowadot.us
Kansas Department of Transportation 2004 $25,000.00 Glenn Fager Rodney Montney 785-291-3844 rodney@ksdot.org
Kansas Department of Transportation 2005 $25,000.00 Glenn Fager Rodney Montney 785-291-3844 rodney@ksdot.org
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2004 $50,000.00 Ben Worel Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2005 $50,000.00 Ben Worel Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2006 $50,000.00 Ben Worel Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
New York State Department of Transportation 2004 $50,000.00 Gary Frederick Gary Frederick 518-457-4645 gary.frederick@dot.ny.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2005 $50,000.00 Gary Frederick Gary Frederick 518-457-4645 gary.frederick@dot.ny.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2004 $20,000.00 Ron Horner Ron Horner 701-328-6904 rhorner@nd.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2005 $15,000.00 Ron Horner Ron Horner 701-328-6904 rhorner@nd.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2006 $15,000.00 Ron Horner Ron Horner 701-328-6904 rhorner@nd.gov
Vermont Agency of Transportation 2004 $20,000.00 Bill Ahearn Craig Graham 802-828-6920 craig.graham@state.vt.us
Vermont Agency of Transportation 2005 $10,000.00 Bill Ahearn Craig Graham 802-828-6920 craig.graham@state.vt.us
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2004 $50,000.00 Steven Krebs Marcie Johnson

Study Description

Study Description

Low temperature cracking is the most prevalent distress found in asphalt pavements built in cold weather climates. As the temperature drops the restrained pavement tries to shrink. The tensile stresses build up to a critical point when a crack is formed and partial stress relief occurs. The current Superpave specification attempts to address this issue by specifying a limiting low temperature for the asphalt binder. The specification does a reasonable job predicting performance of conventional asphalt cements, but this does not hold true for polymer-modified asphalt binders that are manufactured to reach very cold temperature grades needed in cold climates. Typically the base asphalt binder controls the low temperature properties. As an example a PG 58-34 is made with an xx-34 grade asphalt and polymer is added to achieve the high end (58). Currently the low temperature specification considers only the asphalt binder. Specifications must be developed for the complete asphalt mixture. Although low temperature cracking appears to be controlled by a single-event mechanism, it is very important to understand the mechanism of crack initiation and propagation. These cracks can be initiated by traffic loading, cycles of temperature changes, and then propagated by a large drop in temperature. In addition, the significant effects of aging and moisture on crack formation and propagation is also not fully understood and needs investigation.

Objectives

The development of a fracture-mechanics-based specification is one of the objectives of this study. It will allow for a better selection of asphalt binders and mixtures with respect to their resistance to crack formation and propagation. This fracture mechanics approach will also be used to investigate the detrimental role of aging and moisture to fracture resistance of asphalt materials.

Scope of Work

· Utilize a national Technical Advisory Panel (TAP) to assist in the selection and development of testing methods that measure fundamental material properties related to low temperature cracking.

· Collect samples and mix designs from participating states and industry and run all recommended new testing methods.

· Correlate the test results with documented field performance.

· Develop and refine the most promising new testing methods for low temperature cracking.

· Calibrate and validate the thermal cracking model in the 2002 AASHTO design guide.

· Select mix designs for the reconstruction of MnROAD. Construction and field validation at MnROAD will be completed in the next phase of the study.

Comments

It is anticipated that each state will contribute $50,000 for this project. The funds can be transferred per the agencies discretion into three possible fiscal years 2004, 2005, and 2006. Committing states are asked to do so electronically.

Subjects: Pavement Design, Management, and Performance

Title File/Link Type Private
Final Report Final_Report.pdf Final Report Public
September 30th Meeting Minutes meeting_minutes_9-30-04.pdf Other Public
December 12, 2005 Meeting Minutes meeting_minutes_12-12-05.pdf Other Public
August 9, 2004 to October 15, 2004 qtrly_rpt_10-15-04.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 7/1/2004 - 9/30/2004 81655_128_Q1Fy05.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 10/1/2004 - 12/31/2004 81655_128_Q2Fy05.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 1/1/2005 - 3/31/2005 81655_128_Q3Fy05.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 4/1/2005 - 6/30/2005 81655_128_Q4Fy05.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 7/1/2005 - 9/30/2005 81655_128 FY06Q1.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 10/1/2005 - 12/31/2005 qtrly_rpt_12-31-05.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 1/1/2006 - 3/31/2006 qtrly_rpt_3-31-06.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 4/1/2006 - 6/30/2006 81655_128_Q4FY06.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 7/1/2006 - 9/30/2006 81655_128_Q1FY07.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 10/1/2006 - 12/31/2006 qtrly_rpt_12-31-06.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 1/1/2007 - 3/31/2007 qtrly_rpt_03-31-07.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report - 4/1/2007 - 6/30/2007 qtrly_rpt_06-30-07.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Task 2 Sampling - Identify Pavement Sites and Laboratory Materials pavement_sites_10-15-04.pdf Report Public
Executive Summary executive_summary_11-2004.pdf Study Summary Public
Work Plan work_plan.pdf Work Plan Public

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