Improving Specifications to Resist Frost Damage in Modern Concrete Mixtures

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General Information
Study Number: TPF-5(297)
Lead Organization: Oklahoma Transportation
Contract Start Date: May 01, 2014
Solicitation Number: 1338
Partners: AK, CO, CT, FHWA, IADOT, ID, IL, IN, KS, MI, MN, ND, NE, NJ, NY, OK, PADOT, RI, WI
Status: Closed
Est. Completion Date: Sep 01, 2019
Contract/Other Number: TPF-TPF5(297)RS, OK Job Piece 30802(04)
Last Updated: Aug 31, 2020
Contract End Date: Sep 01, 2019
Financial Summary
Contract Amount:
Total Commitments Received: $1,237,500.00
100% SP&R Approval: Approved
Contact Information
Lead Study Contact(s): Ron Curb
rcurb@odot.org
Phone: 405-420-9163
FHWA Technical Liaison(s): Richard Meininger
Richard.Meininger@dot.gov
Phone: 202-493-3191
Organization Year Commitments Technical Contact Name Funding Contact Name Contact Number Email Address
Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities $0.00
Colorado Department of Transportation 2016 $17,500.00 Eric Prieve Aziz Khan aziz.khan@state.co.us
Colorado Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 Eric Prieve Aziz Khan aziz.khan@state.co.us
Colorado Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Eric Prieve Aziz Khan aziz.khan@state.co.us
Colorado Department of Transportation 2019 $17,500.00 Eric Prieve Aziz Khan aziz.khan@state.co.us
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2013 $10,000.00 Alireza Jamalipour Edgardo Block 860-594-2495 Edgardo.Block@ct.gov
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2014 $10,000.00 Alireza Jamalipour Edgardo Block 860-594-2495 Edgardo.Block@ct.gov
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2015 $10,000.00 Alireza Jamalipour Edgardo Block 860-594-2495 Edgardo.Block@ct.gov
Federal Highway Administration 2017 $35,000.00 Gina Ahlstrom Laura Lawndy laura.lawndy@dot.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2014 $18,000.00 Craig Wielenga Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2015 $18,000.00 Craig Wielenga Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2016 $16,500.00 Craig Wielenga Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2017 $8,300.00 Craig Wielenga Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2018 $14,100.00 Craig Wielenga Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2019 $12,600.00 Craig Wielenga Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Illinois Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 James Krstulovich Megan Swanson 217-782-3547 Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov
Illinois Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 James Krstulovich Megan Swanson 217-782-3547 Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov
Illinois Department of Transportation 2016 $17,500.00 James Krstulovich Megan Swanson 217-782-3547 Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov
Illinois Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 James Krstulovich Megan Swanson 217-782-3547 Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov
Illinois Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 James Krstulovich Megan Swanson 217-782-3547 Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov
Indiana Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Tony Zander Tommy Nantung 765-463-1521 ext 248 tnantung@indot.in.gov
Indiana Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Tony Zander Tommy Nantung 765-463-1521 ext 248 tnantung@indot.in.gov
Iowa Department of Transportation 2013 $17,500.00 Todd Hanson Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Todd Hanson Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Todd Hanson Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 Todd Hanson Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Todd Hanson Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2019 $0.00 Todd Hanson Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Kansas Department of Transportation 2013 $17,500.00 Dave Meggers David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Dave Meggers David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Dave Meggers David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 Dave Meggers David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Dave Meggers David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2019 $17,500.00 Dave Meggers David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Michigan Department of Transportation 2014 $35,000.00 Tim Stallard Andre' Clover 517-749-9001 clovera@michigan.gov
Michigan Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Tim Stallard Andre' Clover 517-749-9001 clovera@michigan.gov
Michigan Department of Transportation 2016 $17,500.00 Tim Stallard Andre' Clover 517-749-9001 clovera@michigan.gov
Michigan Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Tim Stallard Andre' Clover 517-749-9001 clovera@michigan.gov
Michigan Department of Transportation 2019 $17,500.00 Tim Stallard Andre' Clover 517-749-9001 clovera@michigan.gov
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2013 $17,500.00 Maria Masten Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Maria Masten Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Maria Masten Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2016 $0.00 Maria Masten Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 Maria Masten Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Maria Masten Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Nebraska Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Wallace Heyen Jodi Gibson 402-479-4337 jodi.gibson@nebraska.gov
Nebraska Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Wallace Heyen Jodi Gibson 402-479-4337 jodi.gibson@nebraska.gov
Nebraska Department of Transportation 2016 $17,500.00 Wallace Heyen Jodi Gibson 402-479-4337 jodi.gibson@nebraska.gov
Nebraska Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 Wallace Heyen Jodi Gibson 402-479-4337 jodi.gibson@nebraska.gov
Nebraska Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Wallace Heyen Jodi Gibson 402-479-4337 jodi.gibson@nebraska.gov
Nebraska Department of Transportation 2019 $17,500.00 Wallace Heyen Jodi Gibson 402-479-4337 jodi.gibson@nebraska.gov
New Jersey Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Giri Venkiteela Giri Venkiteela 6099632239 Giri.Venkiteela@dot.NJ.gov
New Jersey Department of Transportation 2016 $17,500.00 Giri Venkiteela Giri Venkiteela 6099632239 Giri.Venkiteela@dot.NJ.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2017 $35,000.00 Dan Dennis Wes Yang 518-457-4660 wes.yang@dot.ny.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2018 $0.00 Dan Dennis Wes Yang 518-457-4660 wes.yang@dot.ny.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 TJ Murphy Amy Beise 701-328-6921 abeise@nd.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 TJ Murphy Amy Beise 701-328-6921 abeise@nd.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2016 $17,500.00 TJ Murphy Amy Beise 701-328-6921 abeise@nd.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 TJ Murphy Amy Beise 701-328-6921 abeise@nd.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 TJ Murphy Amy Beise 701-328-6921 abeise@nd.gov
Oklahoma Transportation 2013 $0.00 Kenny Seward Ron Curb (405)420-9163 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Kenny Seward Ron Curb (405)420-9163 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Kenny Seward Ron Curb (405)420-9163 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2016 $17,500.00 Kenny Seward Ron Curb (405)420-9163 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2017 $0.00 Kenny Seward Ron Curb (405)420-9163 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Kenny Seward Ron Curb (405)420-9163 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2019 $17,500.00 Kenny Seward Ron Curb (405)420-9163 rcurb@odot.org
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Steve Koser Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Steve Koser Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 Steve Koser Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Steve Koser Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Rhode Island Department of Transportation $0.00
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Chad Hayes Ethan Severson 608-266-1457 ethanp.severson@dot.wi.gov
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Chad Hayes Ethan Severson 608-266-1457 ethanp.severson@dot.wi.gov
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2016 $17,500.00 Chad Hayes Ethan Severson 608-266-1457 ethanp.severson@dot.wi.gov
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 Chad Hayes Ethan Severson 608-266-1457 ethanp.severson@dot.wi.gov
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Chad Hayes Ethan Severson 608-266-1457 ethanp.severson@dot.wi.gov

Study Description

Introduction and Background

Concrete can be damaged when it is 1) sufficiently wet (has a high degree of saturation) and 2) exposed temperature cycles that enable freezing and thawing. The damage that occurs due to freezing and thawing can lead to premature deterioration, costly repairs, and premature replacement of concrete infrastructure elements. Current specifications for frost durability are largely based on work completed in the 1950s, and while this work included many landmark discoveries (Kleiger 1952, 1954) it may not be completely representative of materials used in modern concrete mixtures. Further, the majority of current frost damage studies investigate freezing and thawing in water. While it is known that the presence of salts alters the freezing behavior, little research on frost damage is performed on air entrained concrete in salt water other than scaling studies. While the use of water greatly simplifies the system, it is not the most representative of what occurs on America’s bridges and highways. Results from recent studies suggest that there are several ways in which frost damage can be reduced through new tests and improve specifications that can lead to extended service life of concrete infrastructure. A brief summary of some of these findings and their relation to this proposal is provided below.

The conventional approach that is used to improve the frost durability of concrete is with the addition of an air entraining admixture (AEA) while the concrete is mixed. The AEA creates small well-dispersed air filled bubbles in the fresh concrete. Current theories hypothesize that bubbles act as pressure relief reservoirs for water to move during freezing. These air bubbles also decrease the degree of saturation in the concrete (Li et al. 2011). Because a large number of variables during the batching, mixing, and placement impact how AEAs perform in concrete, it can be challenging to provide a consistent air void system in hardened concrete in practice. Task 1 will review the most relevant findings from the literature and use that information to develop a testing matrix. This work will include information on how certain binders and admixtures may be incompatible in some circumstances. For example, research by Sutter at Michigan Tech has investigated the role of fly ash on air entraining dosage and research by Ley at Oklahoma State University has shown that current frost damage specifications may not always be adequate for mixtures with some modern water reducers. After the test matrix is developed the samples will be created and used throughout the testing for the remainder of the study to enable the various tasks to be compared. Specifically, the work will take advantage of novel techniques that have been developed to measure the quality of the air system. A novel method that has been developed to accurately measure void systems in fresh field concrete. Further, advanced experimental tools have been developed to study the three dimensional distribution of air in hardened concrete. For example, X-ray tomography based techniques can be used to image the 3D distribution of voids (Ley et al, in development). While these novel tests show great promise they will be compared with more conventional tests like two dimensional air void analysis and freeze-thaw testing to provide measures that relate these mixtures to measurements that are more commonly used today.

Additional research has investigated the role of absorption and saturation in the freezing process and how this behavior may change in the presence of deicing salts. It has been suggested that the freeze-thaw behavior of concrete can be related to the rate at which the concrete absorbs water and reaches a critical degree of saturation (Fagerlund 2004, Yang et al. 2006, Li et al. 2011). It has been proposed that once the critical degree of saturation is reached the sample begins to crack and the stiffness degrades rapidly. While this

Objectives

The goal of the research is to produce improved specifications, and test methods; while, improving the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of frost damage. Specifically, this work will seek to develop new test procedures that may be faster and/or more reliable than the existing methods. The objectives of this project are:

• Determine the necessary properties of the air-void system to provide satisfactory frost durability in laboratory testing of laboratory and field concretes with different combinations of admixtures, cements, and mixing temperatures in salt environments

• Determine the accuracy of a simple field test method that measures air void system quality with field and laboratory concrete

• Determine the critical combinations of absorption and the critical degree of saturation on the frost durability in accelerated laboratory testing in the presence of deicer salts

• Establish new test methods and specifications for fresh and hardened concrete to determine frost durability and field performance

Understanding the research on freeze-thaw mechanisms is important for two main groups: 1) practicing professionals and 2) graduating undergraduate and graduate students. A portion of this project will be dedicated to development of a strong educational technology transfer program. Develop a short course that utilizes streaming video (and could be placed on a DVD for widespread dissemination). Practicing professionals frequently require information in a short time frame to respond to practice-based problems. The DVD/streaming video approach provides the information as it is needed and as such it is perfect for this application.

Scope of Work

Task 1: Literature Review and Development of the Testing Matrix

Task 2: Sample Preparation

Task 3: Validation of the Super Air Meter

Task 4: Creation of an AASHTO Test Method and Specification for the SAM

Task 5: Use of X-Ray Tomography of Air Voids and Frost Damage

Task 6: ASTM C 666

Task 7: Absorption and Desorption

Task 8: Degree of Saturation and Damage Development

Task 9: Rate of Damage Analysis

Task 10: Technology Transfer

Task 11: Final Report

Comments

Budget

The per state commitment requested is $17,500 per state per year for 3 years. The use of 100% SPR funds has been approved (waiver attached). The commitments received total $642,500. The state commitments total $537,500, FHWA has committed $52,500 and the Concrete Research Council has committed $52,500. The CRC money will be spent in conjunction with this project and will primarily be used to purchase equipment and increase the number of labs that take part in evaluating the SAM. Of the non-industry commitments, Purdue University's budget is $235,000 and Oklahoma State University's budget is $355,000. The project will be directed by Dr. Tyler Ley of Oklahoma State and Dr. Jason Weiss of Purdue University. Peter Taylor of Iowa State and Larry Sutter of Michigan Tech will also serve as technical advisers on the project.

Subjects: Bridges, Other Structures, and Hydraulics and Hydrology Materials and Construction Pavement Design, Management, and Performance

Documents Attached
Title File/Link Type Privacy Download
TPF-5(297) Final report Part 1 combined FT report final 9_19.pdf Final Report Public
TPF-5(297) Final Report Part 2 Part II FT Pooled Fund final 9_19.pdf Final Report Public
Approval of SPR Waiver Approval of SP&R Waiver Solicitation#1338.pdf Memorandum Public
TPF5 (297) Oklahoma Lead Acceptance Letter TPF5 297 Oklahoma Lead Acceptance Letter.pdf Other Public
REQUEST FOR TECHNICAL CONTACT UPDATE TPF5 297 request for TC update.docx Other Public
Proposed additional tasks June 2018 through early 2019 using additional funds tasks using additional money.docx Other Public
TPF5 (297) 2014 Quarter 2 Progress Report TPF5 297 Quarterly Report July 31 2014.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2014 Quarter 3 Progress Report TPF5 297 Quarterly Report Sept 30 2014.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2014 Quarter 4 Progress Report TPF5 297 Quarterly Report Dec 31 2014.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2015 Quarter 1 Progress Report TPF5 (297) 2015 Quarter1 Progress Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2015 Quarter 2 Progress Report TPF5 (297) 2015 Quarter2 Progress Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2015 Quarter 3 Progress Report TPF5 (297) 2015 Quarter3 Progress Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2015 Quarter 4 Progress Report TPF5 (297) 2015 Quarter 4 Progress Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2016 Quarter 1 Progress Report TPF5 (297) 2016 Quarter 1 Progress Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2016 Quarter 2 Progress Report TPF5 297 Quarterly Report 10b.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2016 Quarter 3 Progress Report TPF5 (297) 2016 Quarter 3 Progress Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Suoolement to 2016 Q3> Toward Performance 1 Specifications for Concrete Durability: 190730-Weiss-TRB-PerformanceSpecs-AsSubmitted.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2016 Quarter 4 Progress Report TPF5 297 Quarterly Report 12.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2017 Quarter 1 Progress Report TPF5 (297) 2017 Quarter 1 Progress Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2017 Quarter 2 Progress Report TPF5 297 Quarterly Report 14.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2017 Quarter 3 Progress Report TPF 5 (297) 2017 Quarter 3 Progress Report.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2017 Quarter 4 Progress Report TPF5 297 Quarterly Report 42017.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2018 Quarter 1 Progress Report TPF5 (297) 2018 Quarter 1 Progress Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2018 Quarter 2 Progress Report TPF 5 (297) 2018 Quarter 2 Progress Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2018 Quarter 3 Progress Report TPF 5 (297) 2018 Quarter 3 Progress Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2018 Quarter 4 Progress Report TPF 5 (297) 2018 Quarter 4 Progress Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2019 Quarter 1 Progress Report Quarterly Progress Report Public
Modified Contract and Proposal OSU TPF5 297 LEY .pdf Work Plan Public
expanded scope of work Proposed Extension to Pooled Fund 1338.pdf Work Plan Public
NOTICE OF PROPOSED STUDY EXTENSION Previous notice.docx Work Plan Public

Improving Specifications to Resist Frost Damage in Modern Concrete Mixtures

General Information
Study Number: TPF-5(297)
Lead Organization: Oklahoma Transportation
Contract Start Date: May 01, 2014
Solicitation Number: 1338
Partners: AK, CO, CT, FHWA, IADOT, ID, IL, IN, KS, MI, MN, ND, NE, NJ, NY, OK, PADOT, RI, WI
Status: Closed
Est. Completion Date: Sep 01, 2019
Contract/Other Number: TPF-TPF5(297)RS, OK Job Piece 30802(04)
Last Updated: Aug 31, 2020
Contract End Date: Sep 01, 2019
Financial Summary
Contract Amount:
Total Commitments Received: $1,237,500.00
100% SP&R Approval:
Contact Information
Lead Study Contact(s): Ron Curb
rcurb@odot.org
Phone: 405-420-9163
FHWA Technical Liaison(s): Richard Meininger
Richard.Meininger@dot.gov
Phone: 202-493-3191
Commitments by Organizations
Organization Year Commitments Technical Contact Name Funding Contact Name Contact Number Email Address
Colorado Department of Transportation 2016 $17,500.00 Eric Prieve Aziz Khan aziz.khan@state.co.us
Colorado Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 Eric Prieve Aziz Khan aziz.khan@state.co.us
Colorado Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Eric Prieve Aziz Khan aziz.khan@state.co.us
Colorado Department of Transportation 2019 $17,500.00 Eric Prieve Aziz Khan aziz.khan@state.co.us
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2013 $10,000.00 Alireza Jamalipour Edgardo Block 860-594-2495 Edgardo.Block@ct.gov
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2014 $10,000.00 Alireza Jamalipour Edgardo Block 860-594-2495 Edgardo.Block@ct.gov
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2015 $10,000.00 Alireza Jamalipour Edgardo Block 860-594-2495 Edgardo.Block@ct.gov
Federal Highway Administration 2017 $35,000.00 Gina Ahlstrom Laura Lawndy laura.lawndy@dot.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2014 $18,000.00 Craig Wielenga Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2015 $18,000.00 Craig Wielenga Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2016 $16,500.00 Craig Wielenga Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2017 $8,300.00 Craig Wielenga Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2018 $14,100.00 Craig Wielenga Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2019 $12,600.00 Craig Wielenga Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Illinois Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 James Krstulovich Megan Swanson 217-782-3547 Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov
Illinois Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 James Krstulovich Megan Swanson 217-782-3547 Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov
Illinois Department of Transportation 2016 $17,500.00 James Krstulovich Megan Swanson 217-782-3547 Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov
Illinois Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 James Krstulovich Megan Swanson 217-782-3547 Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov
Illinois Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 James Krstulovich Megan Swanson 217-782-3547 Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov
Indiana Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Tony Zander Tommy Nantung 765-463-1521 ext 248 tnantung@indot.in.gov
Indiana Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Tony Zander Tommy Nantung 765-463-1521 ext 248 tnantung@indot.in.gov
Iowa Department of Transportation 2013 $17,500.00 Todd Hanson Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Todd Hanson Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Todd Hanson Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 Todd Hanson Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Todd Hanson Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2019 $0.00 Todd Hanson Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Kansas Department of Transportation 2013 $17,500.00 Dave Meggers David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Dave Meggers David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Dave Meggers David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 Dave Meggers David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Dave Meggers David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2019 $17,500.00 Dave Meggers David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Michigan Department of Transportation 2014 $35,000.00 Tim Stallard Andre' Clover 517-749-9001 clovera@michigan.gov
Michigan Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Tim Stallard Andre' Clover 517-749-9001 clovera@michigan.gov
Michigan Department of Transportation 2016 $17,500.00 Tim Stallard Andre' Clover 517-749-9001 clovera@michigan.gov
Michigan Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Tim Stallard Andre' Clover 517-749-9001 clovera@michigan.gov
Michigan Department of Transportation 2019 $17,500.00 Tim Stallard Andre' Clover 517-749-9001 clovera@michigan.gov
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2013 $17,500.00 Maria Masten Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Maria Masten Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Maria Masten Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2016 $0.00 Maria Masten Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 Maria Masten Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Maria Masten Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Nebraska Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Wallace Heyen Jodi Gibson 402-479-4337 jodi.gibson@nebraska.gov
Nebraska Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Wallace Heyen Jodi Gibson 402-479-4337 jodi.gibson@nebraska.gov
Nebraska Department of Transportation 2016 $17,500.00 Wallace Heyen Jodi Gibson 402-479-4337 jodi.gibson@nebraska.gov
Nebraska Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 Wallace Heyen Jodi Gibson 402-479-4337 jodi.gibson@nebraska.gov
Nebraska Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Wallace Heyen Jodi Gibson 402-479-4337 jodi.gibson@nebraska.gov
Nebraska Department of Transportation 2019 $17,500.00 Wallace Heyen Jodi Gibson 402-479-4337 jodi.gibson@nebraska.gov
New Jersey Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Giri Venkiteela Giri Venkiteela 6099632239 Giri.Venkiteela@dot.NJ.gov
New Jersey Department of Transportation 2016 $17,500.00 Giri Venkiteela Giri Venkiteela 6099632239 Giri.Venkiteela@dot.NJ.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2017 $35,000.00 Dan Dennis Wes Yang 518-457-4660 wes.yang@dot.ny.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2018 $0.00 Dan Dennis Wes Yang 518-457-4660 wes.yang@dot.ny.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 TJ Murphy Amy Beise 701-328-6921 abeise@nd.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 TJ Murphy Amy Beise 701-328-6921 abeise@nd.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2016 $17,500.00 TJ Murphy Amy Beise 701-328-6921 abeise@nd.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 TJ Murphy Amy Beise 701-328-6921 abeise@nd.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 TJ Murphy Amy Beise 701-328-6921 abeise@nd.gov
Oklahoma Transportation 2013 $0.00 Kenny Seward Ron Curb (405)420-9163 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Kenny Seward Ron Curb (405)420-9163 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Kenny Seward Ron Curb (405)420-9163 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2016 $17,500.00 Kenny Seward Ron Curb (405)420-9163 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2017 $0.00 Kenny Seward Ron Curb (405)420-9163 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Kenny Seward Ron Curb (405)420-9163 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2019 $17,500.00 Kenny Seward Ron Curb (405)420-9163 rcurb@odot.org
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Steve Koser Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Steve Koser Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 Steve Koser Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Steve Koser Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Chad Hayes Ethan Severson 608-266-1457 ethanp.severson@dot.wi.gov
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Chad Hayes Ethan Severson 608-266-1457 ethanp.severson@dot.wi.gov
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2016 $17,500.00 Chad Hayes Ethan Severson 608-266-1457 ethanp.severson@dot.wi.gov
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 Chad Hayes Ethan Severson 608-266-1457 ethanp.severson@dot.wi.gov
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Chad Hayes Ethan Severson 608-266-1457 ethanp.severson@dot.wi.gov

Study Description

Study Description

Introduction and Background

Concrete can be damaged when it is 1) sufficiently wet (has a high degree of saturation) and 2) exposed temperature cycles that enable freezing and thawing. The damage that occurs due to freezing and thawing can lead to premature deterioration, costly repairs, and premature replacement of concrete infrastructure elements. Current specifications for frost durability are largely based on work completed in the 1950s, and while this work included many landmark discoveries (Kleiger 1952, 1954) it may not be completely representative of materials used in modern concrete mixtures. Further, the majority of current frost damage studies investigate freezing and thawing in water. While it is known that the presence of salts alters the freezing behavior, little research on frost damage is performed on air entrained concrete in salt water other than scaling studies. While the use of water greatly simplifies the system, it is not the most representative of what occurs on America’s bridges and highways. Results from recent studies suggest that there are several ways in which frost damage can be reduced through new tests and improve specifications that can lead to extended service life of concrete infrastructure. A brief summary of some of these findings and their relation to this proposal is provided below.

The conventional approach that is used to improve the frost durability of concrete is with the addition of an air entraining admixture (AEA) while the concrete is mixed. The AEA creates small well-dispersed air filled bubbles in the fresh concrete. Current theories hypothesize that bubbles act as pressure relief reservoirs for water to move during freezing. These air bubbles also decrease the degree of saturation in the concrete (Li et al. 2011). Because a large number of variables during the batching, mixing, and placement impact how AEAs perform in concrete, it can be challenging to provide a consistent air void system in hardened concrete in practice. Task 1 will review the most relevant findings from the literature and use that information to develop a testing matrix. This work will include information on how certain binders and admixtures may be incompatible in some circumstances. For example, research by Sutter at Michigan Tech has investigated the role of fly ash on air entraining dosage and research by Ley at Oklahoma State University has shown that current frost damage specifications may not always be adequate for mixtures with some modern water reducers. After the test matrix is developed the samples will be created and used throughout the testing for the remainder of the study to enable the various tasks to be compared. Specifically, the work will take advantage of novel techniques that have been developed to measure the quality of the air system. A novel method that has been developed to accurately measure void systems in fresh field concrete. Further, advanced experimental tools have been developed to study the three dimensional distribution of air in hardened concrete. For example, X-ray tomography based techniques can be used to image the 3D distribution of voids (Ley et al, in development). While these novel tests show great promise they will be compared with more conventional tests like two dimensional air void analysis and freeze-thaw testing to provide measures that relate these mixtures to measurements that are more commonly used today.

Additional research has investigated the role of absorption and saturation in the freezing process and how this behavior may change in the presence of deicing salts. It has been suggested that the freeze-thaw behavior of concrete can be related to the rate at which the concrete absorbs water and reaches a critical degree of saturation (Fagerlund 2004, Yang et al. 2006, Li et al. 2011). It has been proposed that once the critical degree of saturation is reached the sample begins to crack and the stiffness degrades rapidly. While this

Objectives

The goal of the research is to produce improved specifications, and test methods; while, improving the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of frost damage. Specifically, this work will seek to develop new test procedures that may be faster and/or more reliable than the existing methods. The objectives of this project are:

• Determine the necessary properties of the air-void system to provide satisfactory frost durability in laboratory testing of laboratory and field concretes with different combinations of admixtures, cements, and mixing temperatures in salt environments

• Determine the accuracy of a simple field test method that measures air void system quality with field and laboratory concrete

• Determine the critical combinations of absorption and the critical degree of saturation on the frost durability in accelerated laboratory testing in the presence of deicer salts

• Establish new test methods and specifications for fresh and hardened concrete to determine frost durability and field performance

Understanding the research on freeze-thaw mechanisms is important for two main groups: 1) practicing professionals and 2) graduating undergraduate and graduate students. A portion of this project will be dedicated to development of a strong educational technology transfer program. Develop a short course that utilizes streaming video (and could be placed on a DVD for widespread dissemination). Practicing professionals frequently require information in a short time frame to respond to practice-based problems. The DVD/streaming video approach provides the information as it is needed and as such it is perfect for this application.

Scope of Work

Task 1: Literature Review and Development of the Testing Matrix

Task 2: Sample Preparation

Task 3: Validation of the Super Air Meter

Task 4: Creation of an AASHTO Test Method and Specification for the SAM

Task 5: Use of X-Ray Tomography of Air Voids and Frost Damage

Task 6: ASTM C 666

Task 7: Absorption and Desorption

Task 8: Degree of Saturation and Damage Development

Task 9: Rate of Damage Analysis

Task 10: Technology Transfer

Task 11: Final Report

Comments

Budget

The per state commitment requested is $17,500 per state per year for 3 years. The use of 100% SPR funds has been approved (waiver attached). The commitments received total $642,500. The state commitments total $537,500, FHWA has committed $52,500 and the Concrete Research Council has committed $52,500. The CRC money will be spent in conjunction with this project and will primarily be used to purchase equipment and increase the number of labs that take part in evaluating the SAM. Of the non-industry commitments, Purdue University's budget is $235,000 and Oklahoma State University's budget is $355,000. The project will be directed by Dr. Tyler Ley of Oklahoma State and Dr. Jason Weiss of Purdue University. Peter Taylor of Iowa State and Larry Sutter of Michigan Tech will also serve as technical advisers on the project.

Subjects: Bridges, Other Structures, and Hydraulics and Hydrology Materials and Construction Pavement Design, Management, and Performance

Title File/Link Type Private
TPF-5(297) Final report Part 1 combined FT report final 9_19.pdf Final Report Public
TPF-5(297) Final Report Part 2 Part II FT Pooled Fund final 9_19.pdf Final Report Public
Approval of SPR Waiver Approval of SP&R Waiver Solicitation#1338.pdf Memorandum Public
TPF5 (297) Oklahoma Lead Acceptance Letter TPF5 297 Oklahoma Lead Acceptance Letter.pdf Other Public
REQUEST FOR TECHNICAL CONTACT UPDATE TPF5 297 request for TC update.docx Other Public
Proposed additional tasks June 2018 through early 2019 using additional funds tasks using additional money.docx Other Public
TPF5 (297) 2014 Quarter 2 Progress Report TPF5 297 Quarterly Report July 31 2014.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2014 Quarter 3 Progress Report TPF5 297 Quarterly Report Sept 30 2014.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2014 Quarter 4 Progress Report TPF5 297 Quarterly Report Dec 31 2014.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2015 Quarter 1 Progress Report TPF5 (297) 2015 Quarter1 Progress Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2015 Quarter 2 Progress Report TPF5 (297) 2015 Quarter2 Progress Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2015 Quarter 3 Progress Report TPF5 (297) 2015 Quarter3 Progress Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2015 Quarter 4 Progress Report TPF5 (297) 2015 Quarter 4 Progress Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2016 Quarter 1 Progress Report TPF5 (297) 2016 Quarter 1 Progress Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2016 Quarter 2 Progress Report TPF5 297 Quarterly Report 10b.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2016 Quarter 3 Progress Report TPF5 (297) 2016 Quarter 3 Progress Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Suoolement to 2016 Q3> Toward Performance 1 Specifications for Concrete Durability: 190730-Weiss-TRB-PerformanceSpecs-AsSubmitted.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2016 Quarter 4 Progress Report TPF5 297 Quarterly Report 12.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2017 Quarter 1 Progress Report TPF5 (297) 2017 Quarter 1 Progress Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2017 Quarter 2 Progress Report TPF5 297 Quarterly Report 14.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2017 Quarter 3 Progress Report TPF 5 (297) 2017 Quarter 3 Progress Report.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2017 Quarter 4 Progress Report TPF5 297 Quarterly Report 42017.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2018 Quarter 1 Progress Report TPF5 (297) 2018 Quarter 1 Progress Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2018 Quarter 2 Progress Report TPF 5 (297) 2018 Quarter 2 Progress Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2018 Quarter 3 Progress Report TPF 5 (297) 2018 Quarter 3 Progress Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2018 Quarter 4 Progress Report TPF 5 (297) 2018 Quarter 4 Progress Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
TPF5 (297) 2019 Quarter 1 Progress Report Quarterly Progress Report Public
Modified Contract and Proposal OSU TPF5 297 LEY .pdf Work Plan Public
expanded scope of work Proposed Extension to Pooled Fund 1338.pdf Work Plan Public
NOTICE OF PROPOSED STUDY EXTENSION Previous notice.docx Work Plan Public

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