Evaluation of Lateral Pile Resistance Near MSE Walls at a Dedicated Wall Site

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General Information
Study Number: TPF-5(272)
Lead Organization: Utah Department of Transportation
Contract Start Date: Dec 02, 2013
Solicitation Number: 1311
Partners: FL, IADOT, KS, MA, MN, MT, NY, OR, TX, UT, WI
Contractor(s): Brigham Young University
Status: Contract signed
Est. Completion Date: Sep 30, 2018
Contract/Other Number: 14-8434
Last Updated: Oct 17, 2018
Contract End Date: Sep 30, 2018
Financial Summary
Contract Amount: $322,000.00
Total Commitments Received: $302,000.00
100% SP&R Approval: Approved
Contact Information
Lead Study Contact(s): David Stevens
davidstevens@utah.gov
Phone: 801-589-8340
FHWA Technical Liaison(s): Michael Adams
mike.adams@dot.gov
Phone: 202-493-3025
Organization Year Commitments Technical Contact Name Funding Contact Name Contact Number Email Address
Florida Department of Transportation 2013 $10,000.00 Larry Jones Patti Brannon 850-414-4616 patti.brannon@dot.state.fl.us
Florida Department of Transportation 2014 $10,000.00 Larry Jones Patti Brannon 850-414-4616 patti.brannon@dot.state.fl.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2013 $10,000.00 Michael Nop Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2014 $10,000.00 Michael Nop Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Kansas Department of Transportation 2013 $30,000.00 James Brennan David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Massachusetts Department of Transportation $0.00
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2012 $10,000.00 Nick Haltvick Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2013 $10,000.00 Nick Haltvick Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Montana Department of Transportation 2012 $10,000.00 Stephanie Brandenberger Susan Sillick 406-444-7693 ssillick@mt.gov
Montana Department of Transportation 2013 $10,000.00 Stephanie Brandenberger Susan Sillick 406-444-7693 ssillick@mt.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2013 $16,000.00 Steve Conklin Wes Yang 518-457-4660 wes.yang@dot.ny.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2014 $16,000.00 Steve Conklin Wes Yang 518-457-4660 wes.yang@dot.ny.gov
Oregon Department of Transportation 2011 $0.00 Susan Ortiz Michael Bufalino 503-986-2845 Michael.Bufalino@odot.state.or.us
Oregon Department of Transportation 2012 $15,000.00 Susan Ortiz Michael Bufalino 503-986-2845 Michael.Bufalino@odot.state.or.us
Oregon Department of Transportation 2013 $15,000.00 Susan Ortiz Michael Bufalino 503-986-2845 Michael.Bufalino@odot.state.or.us
Texas Department of Transportation 2012 $12,500.00 Dina Dewane Sandra Kaderka rtimain@txdot.gov
Texas Department of Transportation 2013 $12,500.00 Dina Dewane Sandra Kaderka rtimain@txdot.gov
Utah Department of Transportation 2012 $25,000.00 Jason Richins David Stevens 801-589-8340 davidstevens@utah.gov
Utah Department of Transportation 2013 $20,000.00 Jason Richins David Stevens 801-589-8340 davidstevens@utah.gov
Utah Department of Transportation 2014 $30,000.00 Jason Richins David Stevens 801-589-8340 davidstevens@utah.gov
Utah Department of Transportation 2015 $20,000.00 Jason Richins David Stevens 801-589-8340 davidstevens@utah.gov
Utah Department of Transportation 2016 $0.00 Jason Richins David Stevens 801-589-8340 davidstevens@utah.gov
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2015 $10,000.00 Jeff Horsfall Ethan Severson 608-266-1457 ethanp.severson@dot.wi.gov

Study Description

Pile foundations for bridges with integral abutments must resist lateral loads produced by earthquakes and thermal expansion or contraction. Increasingly, right-of-way constraints are also leading to vertical mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls at abutment faces. Currently, there is relatively little guidance for engineers in assessing the lateral resistance of piles located close to these MSE walls. As a result, some designers assume that the soil provides no resistance whatsoever which leads to larger pile diameters and increased foundation cost. Other designers locate the abutment piles six to eight pile diameters behind a wall face to minimize the interaction and use conventional design approaches. However, this approach increases the bridge span and the cost of the bridge structure. Still other designers position the pile close to the wall face and reduce the lateral pile resistance using engineering judgment. However, the appropriate reduction factor to use as a function of pile spacing is not well defined.

Recent testing conducted by Rollins et al (2013) and Pierson et al (2008) indicate that lateral resistance decreases substantially as pile spacing from the wall decreases; however, reinforcing can reduce this effect. Rollins et al also found that p-multipliers defined as a function normalized spacing and reinforcement length seemed to provide reasonable agreement with measured pile response. Furthermore, Rollins et al found that the tensile force in the reinforcements owing to the lateral load on the pile could be estimated for design purposes using a correlation with pile load, spacing behind the wall, and distance transverse from the pile load.

Although the tests to date provide a framework for understanding the mechanisms involved and likely design approaches, the available data is too limited to make firm design recommendations. To improve our understanding of pile-MSE wall interaction, we propose to construct a test embankment approximately 80 ft long and 20 ft tall where it will be possible to conduct a number of lateral pile load tests on different pile types behind an MSE wall with both strip and grid type steel reinforcements. Additional contributions to the project will consist of in-kind donations from various contractors and material suppliers.

Objectives

Objectives for this study include the following, all aimed at improving our understanding of pile-MSE wall interaction:

1. Measure reduced lateral pile resistance vs. displacement curves for circular, square, and H piles behind an MSE wall with steel strips and grid reinforcement.

2. Measure the increase and distribution of tensile force in the MSE reinforcement induced by lateral pile loading.

3. Measure effect of special pile head geometry (e.g. corrugated pipe sleeves, double plastic sheeting) on lateral pile resistance.

4. Develop design rules (e.g. p-multipliers) to account for reduced pile resistance as a function of spacing and reinforcement.

5. Develop equation to predict reinforcement force induced by pile loading.

6. Develop design equations to account for pile shape and pile head geometry.

Scope of Work

Tasks for this study include:

1. Instrument test piles and reinforcements.

2. Drive test piles and construct dedicated MSE wall to height of 15 ft, away from the highway right-of-way and in coordination with contractors and suppliers.

3. Perform lateral load tests on single piles with 15 ft high MSE wall.

4. Reduce data and develop report on the testing for the 15 ft high wall.

5. Determine p-multipliers and reinforcement force equations for 15 ft high wall test results.

6. Perform lateral load tests on single piles with 20 ft high MSE wall.

7. Reduce data and develop report on the testing for the 20 ft high wall.

8. Determine p-multipliers and reinforcement force equations for 20 ft high wall test results.

9. Develop design recommendations to account for pile sleeves and plastic sheeting effects.

10. Prepare final report with recommendations based on all tests.

11. Hold Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) meetings.

12. Present results of the study at AASHTO, TRB, and ASCE meetings to help with implementation of design methods into code.

Comments

The Principal Investigator for this study is Dr. Kyle Rollins of Brigham Young University. Dr. Rollins has extensive experience with lateral load tests on piles. He was the Principal Investigator on the Utah Department of Transportation's recent study of three bridge sites where piles were tested at variable spacings behind MSE walls.

Construction at the dedicated wall site is planned to begin in the winter/spring of 2014, followed by conducting of field tests and other project tasks. The dedicated wall site will allow the research team to have improved control over wall construction and pile layout, test variables, and the testing schedule.

The minimum partner commitment expected is $20,000.

Documents Attached
Title File/Link Type Privacy Download
Acceptance Memo Acceptance Memo.PDF Memorandum Public
2012 3rd Quarter 2012 3rd quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2012 4th Quarter 2012 4th quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2013 1st Quarter 2013 1st quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2013 2nd Quarter 2013 2nd quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2013 3rd Quarter 2013 3rd quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2013 4th Quarter 2013 4th quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 1st Quarter 2014 1st quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 2nd Quarter 2014 2nd quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 3rd Quarter 2014 3rd quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 4th Quarter 2014 4th quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 1st Quarter 2015 1st quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 2nd Quarter 2015 2nd quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 3rd Quarter 2015 3rd quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 4th Quarter 2015 4th quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 1st Quarter 2016 1st quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 2nd Quarter 2016 2nd quarter report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 3rd Quarter 2016 3rd quarter report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 4th Quarter 2016 4th quarter report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 1st Quarter 2017 1st quarter report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 2nd Quarter 2017_2nd_quarter_report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 3rd Quarter 2017 3rd quarter report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 4th Quarter 2017 4th quarter report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 1st Quarter 2018 1st quarter report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 2nd Quarter 2018 2nd quarter report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 3rd Quarter 2018 3rd quarter report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 4th Quarter 2018 4th quarter report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2020 3rd Quarter 2020 3rd quarter report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public

Evaluation of Lateral Pile Resistance Near MSE Walls at a Dedicated Wall Site

General Information
Study Number: TPF-5(272)
Lead Organization: Utah Department of Transportation
Contract Start Date: Dec 02, 2013
Solicitation Number: 1311
Partners: FL, IADOT, KS, MA, MN, MT, NY, OR, TX, UT, WI
Contractor(s): Brigham Young University
Status: Contract signed
Est. Completion Date: Sep 30, 2018
Contract/Other Number: 14-8434
Last Updated: Oct 17, 2018
Contract End Date: Sep 30, 2018
Financial Summary
Contract Amount: $322,000.00
Total Commitments Received: $302,000.00
100% SP&R Approval:
Contact Information
Lead Study Contact(s): David Stevens
davidstevens@utah.gov
Phone: 801-589-8340
FHWA Technical Liaison(s): Michael Adams
mike.adams@dot.gov
Phone: 202-493-3025
Commitments by Organizations
Organization Year Commitments Technical Contact Name Funding Contact Name Contact Number Email Address
Florida Department of Transportation 2013 $10,000.00 Larry Jones Patti Brannon 850-414-4616 patti.brannon@dot.state.fl.us
Florida Department of Transportation 2014 $10,000.00 Larry Jones Patti Brannon 850-414-4616 patti.brannon@dot.state.fl.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2013 $10,000.00 Michael Nop Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2014 $10,000.00 Michael Nop Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Kansas Department of Transportation 2013 $30,000.00 James Brennan David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2012 $10,000.00 Nick Haltvick Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2013 $10,000.00 Nick Haltvick Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Montana Department of Transportation 2012 $10,000.00 Stephanie Brandenberger Susan Sillick 406-444-7693 ssillick@mt.gov
Montana Department of Transportation 2013 $10,000.00 Stephanie Brandenberger Susan Sillick 406-444-7693 ssillick@mt.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2013 $16,000.00 Steve Conklin Wes Yang 518-457-4660 wes.yang@dot.ny.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2014 $16,000.00 Steve Conklin Wes Yang 518-457-4660 wes.yang@dot.ny.gov
Oregon Department of Transportation 2011 $0.00 Susan Ortiz Michael Bufalino 503-986-2845 Michael.Bufalino@odot.state.or.us
Oregon Department of Transportation 2012 $15,000.00 Susan Ortiz Michael Bufalino 503-986-2845 Michael.Bufalino@odot.state.or.us
Oregon Department of Transportation 2013 $15,000.00 Susan Ortiz Michael Bufalino 503-986-2845 Michael.Bufalino@odot.state.or.us
Texas Department of Transportation 2012 $12,500.00 Dina Dewane Sandra Kaderka rtimain@txdot.gov
Texas Department of Transportation 2013 $12,500.00 Dina Dewane Sandra Kaderka rtimain@txdot.gov
Utah Department of Transportation 2012 $25,000.00 Jason Richins David Stevens 801-589-8340 davidstevens@utah.gov
Utah Department of Transportation 2013 $20,000.00 Jason Richins David Stevens 801-589-8340 davidstevens@utah.gov
Utah Department of Transportation 2014 $30,000.00 Jason Richins David Stevens 801-589-8340 davidstevens@utah.gov
Utah Department of Transportation 2015 $20,000.00 Jason Richins David Stevens 801-589-8340 davidstevens@utah.gov
Utah Department of Transportation 2016 $0.00 Jason Richins David Stevens 801-589-8340 davidstevens@utah.gov
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2015 $10,000.00 Jeff Horsfall Ethan Severson 608-266-1457 ethanp.severson@dot.wi.gov

Study Description

Study Description

Pile foundations for bridges with integral abutments must resist lateral loads produced by earthquakes and thermal expansion or contraction. Increasingly, right-of-way constraints are also leading to vertical mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls at abutment faces. Currently, there is relatively little guidance for engineers in assessing the lateral resistance of piles located close to these MSE walls. As a result, some designers assume that the soil provides no resistance whatsoever which leads to larger pile diameters and increased foundation cost. Other designers locate the abutment piles six to eight pile diameters behind a wall face to minimize the interaction and use conventional design approaches. However, this approach increases the bridge span and the cost of the bridge structure. Still other designers position the pile close to the wall face and reduce the lateral pile resistance using engineering judgment. However, the appropriate reduction factor to use as a function of pile spacing is not well defined.

Recent testing conducted by Rollins et al (2013) and Pierson et al (2008) indicate that lateral resistance decreases substantially as pile spacing from the wall decreases; however, reinforcing can reduce this effect. Rollins et al also found that p-multipliers defined as a function normalized spacing and reinforcement length seemed to provide reasonable agreement with measured pile response. Furthermore, Rollins et al found that the tensile force in the reinforcements owing to the lateral load on the pile could be estimated for design purposes using a correlation with pile load, spacing behind the wall, and distance transverse from the pile load.

Although the tests to date provide a framework for understanding the mechanisms involved and likely design approaches, the available data is too limited to make firm design recommendations. To improve our understanding of pile-MSE wall interaction, we propose to construct a test embankment approximately 80 ft long and 20 ft tall where it will be possible to conduct a number of lateral pile load tests on different pile types behind an MSE wall with both strip and grid type steel reinforcements. Additional contributions to the project will consist of in-kind donations from various contractors and material suppliers.

Objectives

Objectives for this study include the following, all aimed at improving our understanding of pile-MSE wall interaction:

1. Measure reduced lateral pile resistance vs. displacement curves for circular, square, and H piles behind an MSE wall with steel strips and grid reinforcement.

2. Measure the increase and distribution of tensile force in the MSE reinforcement induced by lateral pile loading.

3. Measure effect of special pile head geometry (e.g. corrugated pipe sleeves, double plastic sheeting) on lateral pile resistance.

4. Develop design rules (e.g. p-multipliers) to account for reduced pile resistance as a function of spacing and reinforcement.

5. Develop equation to predict reinforcement force induced by pile loading.

6. Develop design equations to account for pile shape and pile head geometry.

Scope of Work

Tasks for this study include:

1. Instrument test piles and reinforcements.

2. Drive test piles and construct dedicated MSE wall to height of 15 ft, away from the highway right-of-way and in coordination with contractors and suppliers.

3. Perform lateral load tests on single piles with 15 ft high MSE wall.

4. Reduce data and develop report on the testing for the 15 ft high wall.

5. Determine p-multipliers and reinforcement force equations for 15 ft high wall test results.

6. Perform lateral load tests on single piles with 20 ft high MSE wall.

7. Reduce data and develop report on the testing for the 20 ft high wall.

8. Determine p-multipliers and reinforcement force equations for 20 ft high wall test results.

9. Develop design recommendations to account for pile sleeves and plastic sheeting effects.

10. Prepare final report with recommendations based on all tests.

11. Hold Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) meetings.

12. Present results of the study at AASHTO, TRB, and ASCE meetings to help with implementation of design methods into code.

Comments

The Principal Investigator for this study is Dr. Kyle Rollins of Brigham Young University. Dr. Rollins has extensive experience with lateral load tests on piles. He was the Principal Investigator on the Utah Department of Transportation's recent study of three bridge sites where piles were tested at variable spacings behind MSE walls.

Construction at the dedicated wall site is planned to begin in the winter/spring of 2014, followed by conducting of field tests and other project tasks. The dedicated wall site will allow the research team to have improved control over wall construction and pile layout, test variables, and the testing schedule.

The minimum partner commitment expected is $20,000.

Title File/Link Type Private
Acceptance Memo Acceptance Memo.PDF Memorandum Public
2012 3rd Quarter 2012 3rd quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2012 4th Quarter 2012 4th quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2013 1st Quarter 2013 1st quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2013 2nd Quarter 2013 2nd quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2013 3rd Quarter 2013 3rd quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2013 4th Quarter 2013 4th quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 1st Quarter 2014 1st quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 2nd Quarter 2014 2nd quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 3rd Quarter 2014 3rd quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 4th Quarter 2014 4th quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 1st Quarter 2015 1st quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 2nd Quarter 2015 2nd quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 3rd Quarter 2015 3rd quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 4th Quarter 2015 4th quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 1st Quarter 2016 1st quarterly report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 2nd Quarter 2016 2nd quarter report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 3rd Quarter 2016 3rd quarter report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 4th Quarter 2016 4th quarter report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 1st Quarter 2017 1st quarter report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 2nd Quarter 2017_2nd_quarter_report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 3rd Quarter 2017 3rd quarter report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 4th Quarter 2017 4th quarter report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 1st Quarter 2018 1st quarter report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 2nd Quarter 2018 2nd quarter report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 3rd Quarter 2018 3rd quarter report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 4th Quarter 2018 4th quarter report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2020 3rd Quarter 2020 3rd quarter report_TPF-5(272).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public

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