Dynamic Passive Pressure on Abutments and Pile Caps

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General Information
Study Number: TPF-5(122)
Lead Organization: Utah Department of Transportation
Solicitation Number: 950
Partners: CA, MT, NY, OR, UT
Status: Closed
Est. Completion Date:
Contract/Other Number:
Last Updated: Nov 29, 2011
Contract End Date:
Financial Summary
Contract Amount: $255,000.00
Total Commitments Received: $255,000.00
100% SP&R Approval: Approved
Contact Information
Lead Study Contact(s): David Stevens
davidstevens@utah.gov
Phone: 801-589-8340
Organization Year Commitments Technical Contact Name Funding Contact Name Contact Number Email Address
California Department of Transportation 2005 $65,000.00 Tom Shantz Osama Elhamshary Osama_Elhamshary@dot.ca.gov
Montana Department of Transportation 2006 $10,000.00 Stephanie Brandenberger Susan Sillick 406-444-7693 ssillick@mt.gov
Montana Department of Transportation 2007 $10,000.00 Stephanie Brandenberger Susan Sillick 406-444-7693 ssillick@mt.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2005 $25,000.00 Paul Bailey Gary Frederick 518-457-4645 gary.frederick@dot.ny.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2006 $25,000.00 Paul Bailey Gary Frederick 518-457-4645 gary.frederick@dot.ny.gov
Oregon Department of Transportation 2006 $15,000.00 Jan Six Barnie Jones 503- 986-2845 barnie.p.jones@odot.state.or.us
Oregon Department of Transportation 2007 $15,000.00 Jan Six Barnie Jones 503- 986-2845 barnie.p.jones@odot.state.or.us
Oregon Department of Transportation 2008 $15,000.00 Jan Six Barnie Jones 503- 986-2845 barnie.p.jones@odot.state.or.us
Utah Department of Transportation 2006 $40,000.00 Daniel Hsiao 801-386-4929 dhsiao@utah.gov
Utah Department of Transportation 2007 $35,000.00 Daniel Hsiao 801-386-4929 dhsiao@utah.gov

Study Description

Bridge design approaches are increasingly based on a displacement performance philosophy using static pushover analysis. This type of bridge design requires an estimate of the passive force-displacement relationship for abutments and pile caps. Proper modeling of the abutment load-displacement relationship is critical and the assumptions regarding the stiffness and the hysteretic and geometrical damping of the abutment have been shown to have profound effects on the global seismic response and performance of the bridge. Various design recommendations are given for the passive force-deflection relationships for abutments and pile caps. Limited research suggests that resistance is substantially greater and that some design recommendations are leading to costly increases in the number of piles to handle lateral load. In addition, various pile cap connections are presently used but very little guidance is available to define how these connections affect ultimate resistance and stiffness relationships. Connections are often designed as fixed or pinned; but actual performance of these connections is uncertain. In some cases, specifications call for limited compacted backfill around bent pile caps, but it is unknown how this will reduce the passive resistance relative to complete backfill. Finally, design recommendations often ignore increased resistance due to damping which could also lead to greater economy and existing damping values are based on small strain tests. Full-scale dynamic tests can provide answers to these design issues and lead to significant cost savings and improved design.

Objectives

1. Develop passive force-deflection relationships for static and dynamic loads

2. Measure damping coefficients for pile caps and backfills as a function of displacement.

3. Determine the effect of pile cap connection details on abutment stiffness.

4. Evaluate existing design recommendations and develop modifications to improve prediction of measured response

Scope of Work

Task 1-Literature Review and Collection of Existing Test Data

Collect available test results involving pile-cap connection details. Assemble existing large-scale test results involving passive force-deflection relationships for static and dynamic tests on pile caps or abutments. Summarize current AASHTO and relevant state DOT design procedures.

Task 2-Pile Cap Testing to Evaluate Connection Details

Four common pile-cap connection details will be evaluated with full-scale field tests. Connection details will range from pinned conditions to fixed conditions. Each pile cap will be connected to two 12 inch steel pipe piles which were previously driven for pile group testing and are available for use in this study. Load, deflection, rotation and strain measurements will be made during each test. Measurements will allow development of stiffness-rotation relationships.

Task 3-Pile Cap Testing to Determine Static and Dynamic Passive Force-Deflection Relationships

Construct pile caps for testing which have different width/height ratios from previous test and typical connection details. Again, full-scale pile groups are available from previous testing at no cost. Perform static and dynamic lateral load tests on the pile caps with and without backfill in place to evaluate the force-deflection curve for backfill materials. Static loads will be applied in increments using two 650 kip actuators. At each deflection increment, dynamic loading will be carried out with 100 kip capacity eccentric mass shakers to evaluate damping at a variety of strain levels. Tests will be performed over a range of frequencies. Tests will be repeated with granular backfill extending to progressively greater distances from the pile cap until the full failure zone is contained within the backfill. If funding permits, tests will also be conducted will MSE walls containing each side of the backfill.

Task 4-Analysis of Test Results

Reduce the test data. Develop stiffness vs. rotation curves for the various pile-cap connection details. Determine ultimate passive force. Develop static and dynamic passive force-displacement relationships for the various tests. Evaluate variation of passive force-displacement relationships as a function of soil type, cycling and frequency, etc. Determine change in passive force as a function of partial compacted backfill relative to the complete backfill condition. Determine damping factors as a function of displacement level soil type, etc. Evaluate factors to account for 3-D or end shear effects for pile caps with various dimensions.

Task 5- Evaluate Existing Methods and Recommend Improvements

Compare the measured test results from this and other studies with available design methods for predicting response. For example, compare measured ultimate passive force with various earth pressure theories (Rankine, Coulomb, log-spiral, etc.) to determine best approach. Compare passive-force displacement relationships with those recommended by Caltrans, Mokwa and Duncan, Shamsabadi, etc. and determine best approach. Evaluate measured damping ratios with ratios predicted using small-strain vibration theory. Develop modifications or new simple approaches, where necessary, to improve the agreement.

Task 6-Prepare Final Report

A final report will be prepared detailing the testing procedures, test results, analysis methods, as well as comparisons between measured and computed response. The report will contain an implementation summary describing recommended design approaches and appropriate example calculation procedures.

Comments

Specialized dynamic testing equipment and personnel will be mobilized to Utah from California during summers 2005 and 2006 for a related study funded by NSF which reduces the cost of testing. Tests in this study will be performed to compliment the results from the NSF study with different pile cap dimensions, soil conditions, connection details.

Sponsor Contact: Daniel Hsiao, 801-965-4638, dhsiao@utah.gov

Technical Contact: Kyle Rollins, 801-422-6334, rollinsk@byu.edu

Subjects: Bridges, Other Structures, and Hydraulics and Hydrology

Documents Attached
Title File/Link Type Privacy Download
Task 4 Revised Final Report Task_4_Revised_Final_Report.pdf Final Report Public
Task 6 Draft Final Report Task_6_Interim_Summary_Report.pdf Final Report Public
Report No. UT-10.19: Numerical Analysis of Dense Narrow Backfills for Increasing Lateral Passive Resistance ( 2.89 MB) http://www.udot.utah.gov/main//uconowner.gf?n=1789317676767302 Final Report Public
Report No. UT-10.18: Dynamic Passive Pressure on Abutments and Pile Caps ( 6.10 MB) http://www.udot.utah.gov/main//uconowner.gf?n=1789909935831355 Final Report Public
Report No. UT-10.17: Lateral Pile Cap Load Tests With Gravel Backfill of Limited Width (863 KB) http://www.udot.utah.gov/main//uconowner.gf?n=17261514727247715 Final Report Public
Report No. UT-10.16: Laterally Loaded Pile Cap Connections (4.16 MB) http://www.udot.utah.gov/main//uconowner.gf?n=1808620883713576 Final Report Public
Report No. UT-10.15: Passive Force-Deflection Behavior for Abutments With MSE Confined Approach Fills (1.70 MB) http://www.udot.utah.gov/main/uconowner.gf?n=17433513304748492 Final Report Public
Task 6 Interim Summary Report Task_6_Interim_Summary_Report.pdf Other Public
Task 3 Interim Summary Report Task_3_Interim_Summary_Report.pdf Other Public
Quarterly Report Feb-April 2006 Qrtrly_Rpt_04-30-2006.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report May-July 2006 Qrtrly_Rpt_2006-07-31.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report August - October 2006 Qrtrly_Rpt_2006-10-31.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report November 2006 - January 2007 Qrtrly_Rpt_2007-01-31.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: February - April 2007 Qrtrly_Rpt_2007-04-30.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: May - July 2007 Qrtrly_Rpt_2007-07-31.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: August - October 2007 Qrtrly_Rpt_2007-10-31.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: November 2007 - February 2008 Qrtrly_Rpt_2008-02-29.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: March - May 2008 Qrtrly_Rpt_2008-05-31.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: June - September 2008 Qrtrly_Rpt_2008-09-30.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: January 2009 - March 2009 Qrtrly_Rpt_2009-03-31.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: April - June 2009 Qrtrly_Rpt_2009-06-30.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public

Dynamic Passive Pressure on Abutments and Pile Caps

General Information
Study Number: TPF-5(122)
Lead Organization: Utah Department of Transportation
Solicitation Number: 950
Partners: CA, MT, NY, OR, UT
Status: Closed
Est. Completion Date:
Contract/Other Number:
Last Updated: Nov 29, 2011
Contract End Date:
Financial Summary
Contract Amount: $255,000.00
Total Commitments Received: $255,000.00
100% SP&R Approval:
Contact Information
Lead Study Contact(s): David Stevens
davidstevens@utah.gov
Phone: 801-589-8340
Commitments by Organizations
Organization Year Commitments Technical Contact Name Funding Contact Name Contact Number Email Address
California Department of Transportation 2005 $65,000.00 Tom Shantz Osama Elhamshary Osama_Elhamshary@dot.ca.gov
Montana Department of Transportation 2006 $10,000.00 Stephanie Brandenberger Susan Sillick 406-444-7693 ssillick@mt.gov
Montana Department of Transportation 2007 $10,000.00 Stephanie Brandenberger Susan Sillick 406-444-7693 ssillick@mt.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2005 $25,000.00 Paul Bailey Gary Frederick 518-457-4645 gary.frederick@dot.ny.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2006 $25,000.00 Paul Bailey Gary Frederick 518-457-4645 gary.frederick@dot.ny.gov
Oregon Department of Transportation 2006 $15,000.00 Jan Six Barnie Jones 503- 986-2845 barnie.p.jones@odot.state.or.us
Oregon Department of Transportation 2007 $15,000.00 Jan Six Barnie Jones 503- 986-2845 barnie.p.jones@odot.state.or.us
Oregon Department of Transportation 2008 $15,000.00 Jan Six Barnie Jones 503- 986-2845 barnie.p.jones@odot.state.or.us
Utah Department of Transportation 2006 $40,000.00 Daniel Hsiao 801-386-4929 dhsiao@utah.gov
Utah Department of Transportation 2007 $35,000.00 Daniel Hsiao 801-386-4929 dhsiao@utah.gov

Study Description

Study Description

Bridge design approaches are increasingly based on a displacement performance philosophy using static pushover analysis. This type of bridge design requires an estimate of the passive force-displacement relationship for abutments and pile caps. Proper modeling of the abutment load-displacement relationship is critical and the assumptions regarding the stiffness and the hysteretic and geometrical damping of the abutment have been shown to have profound effects on the global seismic response and performance of the bridge. Various design recommendations are given for the passive force-deflection relationships for abutments and pile caps. Limited research suggests that resistance is substantially greater and that some design recommendations are leading to costly increases in the number of piles to handle lateral load. In addition, various pile cap connections are presently used but very little guidance is available to define how these connections affect ultimate resistance and stiffness relationships. Connections are often designed as fixed or pinned; but actual performance of these connections is uncertain. In some cases, specifications call for limited compacted backfill around bent pile caps, but it is unknown how this will reduce the passive resistance relative to complete backfill. Finally, design recommendations often ignore increased resistance due to damping which could also lead to greater economy and existing damping values are based on small strain tests. Full-scale dynamic tests can provide answers to these design issues and lead to significant cost savings and improved design.

Objectives

1. Develop passive force-deflection relationships for static and dynamic loads

2. Measure damping coefficients for pile caps and backfills as a function of displacement.

3. Determine the effect of pile cap connection details on abutment stiffness.

4. Evaluate existing design recommendations and develop modifications to improve prediction of measured response

Scope of Work

Task 1-Literature Review and Collection of Existing Test Data

Collect available test results involving pile-cap connection details. Assemble existing large-scale test results involving passive force-deflection relationships for static and dynamic tests on pile caps or abutments. Summarize current AASHTO and relevant state DOT design procedures.

Task 2-Pile Cap Testing to Evaluate Connection Details

Four common pile-cap connection details will be evaluated with full-scale field tests. Connection details will range from pinned conditions to fixed conditions. Each pile cap will be connected to two 12 inch steel pipe piles which were previously driven for pile group testing and are available for use in this study. Load, deflection, rotation and strain measurements will be made during each test. Measurements will allow development of stiffness-rotation relationships.

Task 3-Pile Cap Testing to Determine Static and Dynamic Passive Force-Deflection Relationships

Construct pile caps for testing which have different width/height ratios from previous test and typical connection details. Again, full-scale pile groups are available from previous testing at no cost. Perform static and dynamic lateral load tests on the pile caps with and without backfill in place to evaluate the force-deflection curve for backfill materials. Static loads will be applied in increments using two 650 kip actuators. At each deflection increment, dynamic loading will be carried out with 100 kip capacity eccentric mass shakers to evaluate damping at a variety of strain levels. Tests will be performed over a range of frequencies. Tests will be repeated with granular backfill extending to progressively greater distances from the pile cap until the full failure zone is contained within the backfill. If funding permits, tests will also be conducted will MSE walls containing each side of the backfill.

Task 4-Analysis of Test Results

Reduce the test data. Develop stiffness vs. rotation curves for the various pile-cap connection details. Determine ultimate passive force. Develop static and dynamic passive force-displacement relationships for the various tests. Evaluate variation of passive force-displacement relationships as a function of soil type, cycling and frequency, etc. Determine change in passive force as a function of partial compacted backfill relative to the complete backfill condition. Determine damping factors as a function of displacement level soil type, etc. Evaluate factors to account for 3-D or end shear effects for pile caps with various dimensions.

Task 5- Evaluate Existing Methods and Recommend Improvements

Compare the measured test results from this and other studies with available design methods for predicting response. For example, compare measured ultimate passive force with various earth pressure theories (Rankine, Coulomb, log-spiral, etc.) to determine best approach. Compare passive-force displacement relationships with those recommended by Caltrans, Mokwa and Duncan, Shamsabadi, etc. and determine best approach. Evaluate measured damping ratios with ratios predicted using small-strain vibration theory. Develop modifications or new simple approaches, where necessary, to improve the agreement.

Task 6-Prepare Final Report

A final report will be prepared detailing the testing procedures, test results, analysis methods, as well as comparisons between measured and computed response. The report will contain an implementation summary describing recommended design approaches and appropriate example calculation procedures.

Comments

Specialized dynamic testing equipment and personnel will be mobilized to Utah from California during summers 2005 and 2006 for a related study funded by NSF which reduces the cost of testing. Tests in this study will be performed to compliment the results from the NSF study with different pile cap dimensions, soil conditions, connection details.

Sponsor Contact: Daniel Hsiao, 801-965-4638, dhsiao@utah.gov

Technical Contact: Kyle Rollins, 801-422-6334, rollinsk@byu.edu

Subjects: Bridges, Other Structures, and Hydraulics and Hydrology

Title File/Link Type Private
Task 4 Revised Final Report Task_4_Revised_Final_Report.pdf Final Report Public
Task 6 Draft Final Report Task_6_Interim_Summary_Report.pdf Final Report Public
Report No. UT-10.19: Numerical Analysis of Dense Narrow Backfills for Increasing Lateral Passive Resistance ( 2.89 MB) Final Report Public
Report No. UT-10.18: Dynamic Passive Pressure on Abutments and Pile Caps ( 6.10 MB) Final Report Public
Report No. UT-10.17: Lateral Pile Cap Load Tests With Gravel Backfill of Limited Width (863 KB) Final Report Public
Report No. UT-10.16: Laterally Loaded Pile Cap Connections (4.16 MB) Final Report Public
Report No. UT-10.15: Passive Force-Deflection Behavior for Abutments With MSE Confined Approach Fills (1.70 MB) Final Report Public
Task 6 Interim Summary Report Task_6_Interim_Summary_Report.pdf Other Public
Task 3 Interim Summary Report Task_3_Interim_Summary_Report.pdf Other Public
Quarterly Report Feb-April 2006 Qrtrly_Rpt_04-30-2006.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report May-July 2006 Qrtrly_Rpt_2006-07-31.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report August - October 2006 Qrtrly_Rpt_2006-10-31.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report November 2006 - January 2007 Qrtrly_Rpt_2007-01-31.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: February - April 2007 Qrtrly_Rpt_2007-04-30.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: May - July 2007 Qrtrly_Rpt_2007-07-31.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: August - October 2007 Qrtrly_Rpt_2007-10-31.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: November 2007 - February 2008 Qrtrly_Rpt_2008-02-29.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: March - May 2008 Qrtrly_Rpt_2008-05-31.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: June - September 2008 Qrtrly_Rpt_2008-09-30.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: January 2009 - March 2009 Qrtrly_Rpt_2009-03-31.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: April - June 2009 Qrtrly_Rpt_2009-06-30.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public

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