Deicer Scaling Resistance of Concrete Pavements, Bridge Decks and Other Structures Containing Slag Cement

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General Information
Study Number: TPF-5(100)
Lead Organization: Iowa Department of Transportation
Contract Start Date: Jun 22, 2010
Solicitation Number: 846
Partners: CT, FHWA, IADOT, KS, NY, OH
Contractor(s): Iowa State University
Status: Closed
Est. Completion Date: Dec 25, 2013
Contract/Other Number:
Last Updated: Apr 23, 2015
Contract End Date: Mar 31, 2014
Financial Summary
Contract Amount: $175,000.00
Total Commitments Received: $250,000.00
100% SP&R Approval: Approved
Contact Information
Lead Study Contact(s): Cheryl Cowie
Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Phone: 515-239-1447
Organization Year Commitments Technical Contact Name Funding Contact Name Contact Number Email Address
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2005 $8,000.00 John Henault James Sime 860-258-0309 james.sime@ct.gov
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2006 $8,000.00 John Henault James Sime 860-258-0309 james.sime@ct.gov
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2007 $9,000.00 John Henault James Sime 860-258-0309 james.sime@ct.gov
Federal Highway Administration 2004 $100,000.00 Suneel Vanikar Sharon Smith 202-366-1553 sharon.r.smith@fhwa.dot.gov
Iowa Department of Transportation 2004 $9,000.00 Kevin Jones Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2005 $8,000.00 Kevin Jones Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2006 $8,000.00 Kevin Jones Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2012 $25,000.00 Kevin Jones Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Kansas Department of Transportation 2005 $25,000.00 Dave Meggers Rodney Montney 785-291-3844 rodney@ksdot.org
New York State Department of Transportation 2004 $25,000.00 Donald Streeter Gary Frederick 518-457-4645 gary.frederick@dot.ny.gov
Ohio Department of Transportation 2005 $25,000.00 Cynthia Jones General Research 614-644-8135 Research@dot.state.oh.us

Study Description

Concrete containing slag generally exhibits excellent long-term strength and durability. However, several authors have expressed concern about the scaling resistance of concrete containing slag, especially when the dosage of slag exceeds 50% of the total cementitious material in the mixture (1-6). Much of the concern appears to be based on the results of laboratory scaling tests (most commonly ASTM C672) (7), which tend to be in poor agreement with field observations (2-6, 8-10). Others indicate that the test performs adequately for evaluating the relative scaling resistance of concrete specimens (11). A systematic study is needed to determine why this anomalous relationship exists between the scaling of field and laboratory concrete specimens containing slag.

Ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS), referred to simply as ¿slag¿ in this document, has a long history of use with portland cement in concrete. Generally, slag improves many properties of both plastic and hardened concrete. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) Committee on Chemical Additions and Admixtures for Concrete summarizes the impact of slag on the properties of portland cement concrete (PCC) as listed in the table below (1). It is apparent that slag can make a significant contribution to the production of durable concrete products.

Objectives

· Document the field performance of existing concrete pavements, bridge decks, and other structures made with slag cement that have been exposed to cyclical freeze-thaw cycles in the presence of deicing chemicals.

· Determine from the field study and construction/design records which mixtures and construction parameters have produced scale-resistant concrete containing slag.

· Determine the effectiveness of ASTM C672 in predicting the deicer scaling behavior of field concrete. If discrepancies are noted, an attempt will be made to explain why the lab tests do not adequately mimic field performance and alternative procedures will be recommended to improve the correlation between lab tests and field performance.

Scope of Work

The project is proposed to be accomplished in two phases:

Phase 1:

- Document the field performance of existing concrete pavements, bridge decks, and other structures made with slag cement that have been exposed to cyclical freeze-thaw cycles in the presence of deicing chemicals.

- Determine from the field study and construction/design records which mixtures and construction parameters have produced scale-resistant concrete containing slag.

Phase 2:

- Determine the effectiveness of ASTM C672 in predicting the deicer scaling behavior of field concrete. If discrepancies are noted, an attempt will be made to explain why the lab tests do not adequately mimic field performance and alternative procedures will be recommended to improve the correlation between lab tests and field performance.

Note: Phase 1 of the project will be initiated once sufficient sponsorship is identified to enable expeditious execution of the research plan. Phase 2 sponsorship solicitation will continue concurrently with Phase 1 activity.

Comments

Phase I

State DOTs* (3 @ $25,000) $75,000

Slag Cement Association* $100,000

Federal Highway Administration $100,000

Phase II: 7 states @ $25,000 = $175,000

Total Budget $450,000

Subjects: Maintenance Materials and Construction

Documents Attached
Title File/Link Type Privacy Download
Phase 1 Final Report: Site Selection and Analysis of Cores. Sept 2008 http://www.ctre.iastate.edu/reports/schlorholtz_deicing_phase1.pdf Final Report Public
Phase 2 Report_Test Methods_July 2012 deicer_scaling_w_cvr_July 2012.pdf Final Report Public
Phase 3 Final Report January 2014 5(100) deicer_scaling_resistance.pdf Final Report Public
Acceptance Memo 2012 slag cement acceptance memo.pdf Memorandum Public
TPF-5(100) Closeout Letter TPF-5(100) Closeout Letter - Signed.pdf Memorandum Public
TPF-5(100) Closeout Funding Spreadsheet TPF-5(100) Closeout Funding Spreadsheet.pdf Other Public
Progress Report: July - September 2010 TPF5(100)20103rdQ.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: October - December 2010 TPF5(100)DeicerScalingFY11qtr2.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: January - March 2011 TPF-5(100) Quarterly Report 3-31-11.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: April - June 2011 TPF-5(100) Quarterly Report_Apr11 - Jun11.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Void_Quarterly Report: July - September 2011 TPF5100_Jul-Sept2011.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
Revised_Quarterly Report: July - Sept 2011_further explains schedule 5(100)_Quarterly Report_July-Sept 2011_Revised.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: December 2011 5(100)_Dec 2011 Quarterly Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: March 2012 5(100)_FY12 qtr3.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report and Draft Final Report: June 2012 June 2012 QPR_5(100).pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: September 2012 TPF-5(100) Sept 2012.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: December 2012 5(100)_Dec 2012 QR.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: March 2013 TPF5(100) QR March 2013.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: June 2013 TPF-5(100) 2013 Q2.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: September 2013 TPF-5(100) Q3.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: Period Ending Dec 2013 5(100) QPR Dec 2013.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: March 2014 5(100) QR March 2014.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: June 2014 TPF100_April-June2014.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
Technical Report on Setting Time Measurement: January 2014 MDA_p-wave_w_cvr.pdf Report Public

Deicer Scaling Resistance of Concrete Pavements, Bridge Decks and Other Structures Containing Slag Cement

General Information
Study Number: TPF-5(100)
Lead Organization: Iowa Department of Transportation
Contract Start Date: Jun 22, 2010
Solicitation Number: 846
Partners: CT, FHWA, IADOT, KS, NY, OH
Contractor(s): Iowa State University
Status: Closed
Est. Completion Date: Dec 25, 2013
Contract/Other Number:
Last Updated: Apr 23, 2015
Contract End Date: Mar 31, 2014
Financial Summary
Contract Amount: $175,000.00
Total Commitments Received: $250,000.00
100% SP&R Approval:
Contact Information
Lead Study Contact(s): Cheryl Cowie
Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Phone: 515-239-1447
Commitments by Organizations
Organization Year Commitments Technical Contact Name Funding Contact Name Contact Number Email Address
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2005 $8,000.00 John Henault James Sime 860-258-0309 james.sime@ct.gov
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2006 $8,000.00 John Henault James Sime 860-258-0309 james.sime@ct.gov
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2007 $9,000.00 John Henault James Sime 860-258-0309 james.sime@ct.gov
Federal Highway Administration 2004 $100,000.00 Suneel Vanikar Sharon Smith 202-366-1553 sharon.r.smith@fhwa.dot.gov
Iowa Department of Transportation 2004 $9,000.00 Kevin Jones Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2005 $8,000.00 Kevin Jones Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2006 $8,000.00 Kevin Jones Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2012 $25,000.00 Kevin Jones Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Kansas Department of Transportation 2005 $25,000.00 Dave Meggers Rodney Montney 785-291-3844 rodney@ksdot.org
New York State Department of Transportation 2004 $25,000.00 Donald Streeter Gary Frederick 518-457-4645 gary.frederick@dot.ny.gov
Ohio Department of Transportation 2005 $25,000.00 Cynthia Jones General Research 614-644-8135 Research@dot.state.oh.us

Study Description

Study Description

Concrete containing slag generally exhibits excellent long-term strength and durability. However, several authors have expressed concern about the scaling resistance of concrete containing slag, especially when the dosage of slag exceeds 50% of the total cementitious material in the mixture (1-6). Much of the concern appears to be based on the results of laboratory scaling tests (most commonly ASTM C672) (7), which tend to be in poor agreement with field observations (2-6, 8-10). Others indicate that the test performs adequately for evaluating the relative scaling resistance of concrete specimens (11). A systematic study is needed to determine why this anomalous relationship exists between the scaling of field and laboratory concrete specimens containing slag.

Ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS), referred to simply as ¿slag¿ in this document, has a long history of use with portland cement in concrete. Generally, slag improves many properties of both plastic and hardened concrete. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) Committee on Chemical Additions and Admixtures for Concrete summarizes the impact of slag on the properties of portland cement concrete (PCC) as listed in the table below (1). It is apparent that slag can make a significant contribution to the production of durable concrete products.

Objectives

· Document the field performance of existing concrete pavements, bridge decks, and other structures made with slag cement that have been exposed to cyclical freeze-thaw cycles in the presence of deicing chemicals.

· Determine from the field study and construction/design records which mixtures and construction parameters have produced scale-resistant concrete containing slag.

· Determine the effectiveness of ASTM C672 in predicting the deicer scaling behavior of field concrete. If discrepancies are noted, an attempt will be made to explain why the lab tests do not adequately mimic field performance and alternative procedures will be recommended to improve the correlation between lab tests and field performance.

Scope of Work

The project is proposed to be accomplished in two phases:

Phase 1:

- Document the field performance of existing concrete pavements, bridge decks, and other structures made with slag cement that have been exposed to cyclical freeze-thaw cycles in the presence of deicing chemicals.

- Determine from the field study and construction/design records which mixtures and construction parameters have produced scale-resistant concrete containing slag.

Phase 2:

- Determine the effectiveness of ASTM C672 in predicting the deicer scaling behavior of field concrete. If discrepancies are noted, an attempt will be made to explain why the lab tests do not adequately mimic field performance and alternative procedures will be recommended to improve the correlation between lab tests and field performance.

Note: Phase 1 of the project will be initiated once sufficient sponsorship is identified to enable expeditious execution of the research plan. Phase 2 sponsorship solicitation will continue concurrently with Phase 1 activity.

Comments

Phase I

State DOTs* (3 @ $25,000) $75,000

Slag Cement Association* $100,000

Federal Highway Administration $100,000

Phase II: 7 states @ $25,000 = $175,000

Total Budget $450,000

Subjects: Maintenance Materials and Construction

Title File/Link Type Private
Phase 1 Final Report: Site Selection and Analysis of Cores. Sept 2008 Final Report Public
Phase 2 Report_Test Methods_July 2012 deicer_scaling_w_cvr_July 2012.pdf Final Report Public
Phase 3 Final Report January 2014 5(100) deicer_scaling_resistance.pdf Final Report Public
Acceptance Memo 2012 slag cement acceptance memo.pdf Memorandum Public
TPF-5(100) Closeout Letter TPF-5(100) Closeout Letter - Signed.pdf Memorandum Public
TPF-5(100) Closeout Funding Spreadsheet TPF-5(100) Closeout Funding Spreadsheet.pdf Other Public
Progress Report: July - September 2010 TPF5(100)20103rdQ.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: October - December 2010 TPF5(100)DeicerScalingFY11qtr2.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: January - March 2011 TPF-5(100) Quarterly Report 3-31-11.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: April - June 2011 TPF-5(100) Quarterly Report_Apr11 - Jun11.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Void_Quarterly Report: July - September 2011 TPF5100_Jul-Sept2011.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
Revised_Quarterly Report: July - Sept 2011_further explains schedule 5(100)_Quarterly Report_July-Sept 2011_Revised.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: December 2011 5(100)_Dec 2011 Quarterly Report.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: March 2012 5(100)_FY12 qtr3.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report and Draft Final Report: June 2012 June 2012 QPR_5(100).pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: September 2012 TPF-5(100) Sept 2012.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: December 2012 5(100)_Dec 2012 QR.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: March 2013 TPF5(100) QR March 2013.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: June 2013 TPF-5(100) 2013 Q2.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: September 2013 TPF-5(100) Q3.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: Period Ending Dec 2013 5(100) QPR Dec 2013.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: March 2014 5(100) QR March 2014.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Quarterly Report: June 2014 TPF100_April-June2014.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
Technical Report on Setting Time Measurement: January 2014 MDA_p-wave_w_cvr.pdf Report Public

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