Effects of Hot Plant Fuel Characteristics and Combustion on Asphalt Concrete Quality

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General Information
Study Number: TPF-5(027)
Lead Organization: South Dakota Department of Transportation
Contract Start Date: Sep 17, 2001
Solicitation Number: 122
Partners: OR, WY
Contractor(s): Purdue University
Status: Closed
Est. Completion Date:
Contract/Other Number: SD2001-13
Last Updated: Sep 26, 2008
Contract End Date: Mar 31, 2003
Financial Summary
Contract Amount: $140,000.00
Total Commitments Received:
100% SP&R Approval: Approved
Contact Information
Lead Study Contact(s): David Huft
dave.huft@state.sd.us
Phone: 605-773-3358
Organization Year Commitments Technical Contact Name Funding Contact Name Contact Number Email Address
Oregon Department of Transportation 0 $0.00
Wyoming Department of Transportation 0 $0.00

Objectives

This study has four objectives: 1) Determine the effects of fuel type, fuel quality, and combustion conditions on the physical and chemical properties of asphalt concrete produced in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) plants; 2) Assess the potential effects of the physical and chemical properties induced by fuel type, fuel quality, and combustion conditions on field performance and constructability of asphalt concrete; 3) Recommend specifications for fuel type, fuel quality, and combustion conditions that ensure acceptable asphalt concrete performance; 4) Develop or recommend test methods that field personnel can easily use to ensure compliance with the recommended specifications.

Scope of Work

1) Meet with the project¿s technical panel to review project scope and work plan.

2) Review previous and ongoing research, conduct a survey of other states¿ experience, and present findings to the technical panel.

3) Evaluate current practices used by HMA plant manufacturers to determine combustion efficiency, and recommend methods for use in tasks 4 and 5.

4) Using solvent extraction or other appropriate methods, determine the combustion residue content on aggregates heated in an operating HMA plant under conditions of insufficient, optimum, and excess oxygen. The aggregates will be heated with no asphalt cement added and fired with propane (if feasible, to establish the base line combustion conditions), No.2, No.5L, No.5H, No.6, (as defined by ASTM D-396) and recycled motor oils RFO4, RFO5L, and RFO5H (as defined by ASTM D-6448) and a minimum of four samples of non-specification waste motor oil, which will be identified by the technical panel. Test non-specification waste motor oil to determine deleterious ingredients and quantities.

5) Using Gel Permeation Chromatography or other appropriate tests for molecular weight distribution as well as chemical testing for trace elements, test asphalt cement before it is combined with aggregates and when it is extracted from asphalt concrete produced from an operating HMA plant. The plant is to be fired with propane (if feasible), No.2, No.5L, No.5H, No.6, (as defined by ASTM D-396) and recycled motor oils RFO4, RFO5L, and RFO5H (as defined by ASTM D-6448) and a minimum of four samples of non-specification waste motor oil, which will be identified by the technical panel. Extracted asphalt cement will be obtained for each of the fuels at combustion conditions of insufficient, optimum, and excess oxygen.

6) Evaluate asphalt concrete produced from the fuel combustion conditions of insufficient, optimum, and excess oxygen using wheel rutting tests, Tensile Shear Rheometer with freeze thaw, film thickness, Marshall stability, Marshall mix parameters, or other tests as appropriate to determine what impact fuels and combustion residue have on physical and chemical properties of in-place asphalt concrete.

7) Evaluate asphalt cement extracted from the same sample lots to determine what affects the different fuels and combustion conditions have on ductility, viscosity, penetration, and other significant physical properties of the asphalt cement.

8) Based on analysis of test results determine what implications, with respect to pavement performance and life cycle costs, that the different fuels and combustion conditions have on asphalt concrete.

9) Develop specifications for fuels and combustion conditions that will ensure production of acceptable asphalt concrete.

10) Determine test method(s) and frequency of tests necessary for field personnel to easily determine when HMA combustion conditions are in compliance with the recommended specifications.

11) Prepare a final report and executive summary of the research methodology, findings, conclusions, and recommendations.

12) Make an executive presentation to the SDDOT Research Review Board at the conclusion of the project.

Comments

This research was initiated to investigate the effects of differing fuel types and combustion conditions on hot mix asphalt. In early October, 2001, eleven fuels were used to fire a plant under optimum, insufficient oxygen and excess oxygen conditions. Samples of heated aggregates, mixtures and raw materials (fuels, binder and aggregates) were obtained and transported to West Lafayette, Indiana, for eventual testing. While all of the samples have been obtained, no testing has been done yet pending a decision on which test methods would provide the best information to meet the objectives. As discussed in detail in this report, we are seeking the approval of the technical panel to commence testing. Chromatography can begin as soon as the panel concurs. After the holidays, binder and mixture physical testing can begin on the control samples and some insufficient oxygen cases. Although the project is slightly behind schedule, it should be quite easy to catch up. 2/19/02

Subjects: Materials and Construction

Documents Attached
Title File/Link Type Privacy Download
Effects of Hot Plant Fuel Characteristics and Combustion on Asphalt Concrete Quality--May 2004 final_rpt_05-2004.pdf Final Report Public
Effects of Hot Plant Fuel Characteristics and Combustion on Asphalt Concrete Quality--Appendices final_rpt_appendices.pdf Final Report Public
Quarterly Progress Report: April 2003 qtrly_rpt_04-03.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Effects of Hot Plant Fuel Characteristics and Combustion on Asphalt Concrete Quality--May 2004 exec_summary_05-2004.pdf Study Summary Public

Effects of Hot Plant Fuel Characteristics and Combustion on Asphalt Concrete Quality

General Information
Study Number: TPF-5(027)
Lead Organization: South Dakota Department of Transportation
Contract Start Date: Sep 17, 2001
Solicitation Number: 122
Partners: OR, WY
Contractor(s): Purdue University
Status: Closed
Est. Completion Date:
Contract/Other Number: SD2001-13
Last Updated: Sep 26, 2008
Contract End Date: Mar 31, 2003
Financial Summary
Contract Amount: $140,000.00
Total Commitments Received:
100% SP&R Approval:
Contact Information
Lead Study Contact(s): David Huft
dave.huft@state.sd.us
Phone: 605-773-3358
Commitments by Organizations
Organization Year Commitments Technical Contact Name Funding Contact Name Contact Number Email Address
Oregon Department of Transportation 0 $0.00
Wyoming Department of Transportation 0 $0.00

Study Description

Objectives

This study has four objectives: 1) Determine the effects of fuel type, fuel quality, and combustion conditions on the physical and chemical properties of asphalt concrete produced in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) plants; 2) Assess the potential effects of the physical and chemical properties induced by fuel type, fuel quality, and combustion conditions on field performance and constructability of asphalt concrete; 3) Recommend specifications for fuel type, fuel quality, and combustion conditions that ensure acceptable asphalt concrete performance; 4) Develop or recommend test methods that field personnel can easily use to ensure compliance with the recommended specifications.

Scope of Work

1) Meet with the project¿s technical panel to review project scope and work plan.

2) Review previous and ongoing research, conduct a survey of other states¿ experience, and present findings to the technical panel.

3) Evaluate current practices used by HMA plant manufacturers to determine combustion efficiency, and recommend methods for use in tasks 4 and 5.

4) Using solvent extraction or other appropriate methods, determine the combustion residue content on aggregates heated in an operating HMA plant under conditions of insufficient, optimum, and excess oxygen. The aggregates will be heated with no asphalt cement added and fired with propane (if feasible, to establish the base line combustion conditions), No.2, No.5L, No.5H, No.6, (as defined by ASTM D-396) and recycled motor oils RFO4, RFO5L, and RFO5H (as defined by ASTM D-6448) and a minimum of four samples of non-specification waste motor oil, which will be identified by the technical panel. Test non-specification waste motor oil to determine deleterious ingredients and quantities.

5) Using Gel Permeation Chromatography or other appropriate tests for molecular weight distribution as well as chemical testing for trace elements, test asphalt cement before it is combined with aggregates and when it is extracted from asphalt concrete produced from an operating HMA plant. The plant is to be fired with propane (if feasible), No.2, No.5L, No.5H, No.6, (as defined by ASTM D-396) and recycled motor oils RFO4, RFO5L, and RFO5H (as defined by ASTM D-6448) and a minimum of four samples of non-specification waste motor oil, which will be identified by the technical panel. Extracted asphalt cement will be obtained for each of the fuels at combustion conditions of insufficient, optimum, and excess oxygen.

6) Evaluate asphalt concrete produced from the fuel combustion conditions of insufficient, optimum, and excess oxygen using wheel rutting tests, Tensile Shear Rheometer with freeze thaw, film thickness, Marshall stability, Marshall mix parameters, or other tests as appropriate to determine what impact fuels and combustion residue have on physical and chemical properties of in-place asphalt concrete.

7) Evaluate asphalt cement extracted from the same sample lots to determine what affects the different fuels and combustion conditions have on ductility, viscosity, penetration, and other significant physical properties of the asphalt cement.

8) Based on analysis of test results determine what implications, with respect to pavement performance and life cycle costs, that the different fuels and combustion conditions have on asphalt concrete.

9) Develop specifications for fuels and combustion conditions that will ensure production of acceptable asphalt concrete.

10) Determine test method(s) and frequency of tests necessary for field personnel to easily determine when HMA combustion conditions are in compliance with the recommended specifications.

11) Prepare a final report and executive summary of the research methodology, findings, conclusions, and recommendations.

12) Make an executive presentation to the SDDOT Research Review Board at the conclusion of the project.

Comments

This research was initiated to investigate the effects of differing fuel types and combustion conditions on hot mix asphalt. In early October, 2001, eleven fuels were used to fire a plant under optimum, insufficient oxygen and excess oxygen conditions. Samples of heated aggregates, mixtures and raw materials (fuels, binder and aggregates) were obtained and transported to West Lafayette, Indiana, for eventual testing. While all of the samples have been obtained, no testing has been done yet pending a decision on which test methods would provide the best information to meet the objectives. As discussed in detail in this report, we are seeking the approval of the technical panel to commence testing. Chromatography can begin as soon as the panel concurs. After the holidays, binder and mixture physical testing can begin on the control samples and some insufficient oxygen cases. Although the project is slightly behind schedule, it should be quite easy to catch up. 2/19/02

Subjects: Materials and Construction

Title File/Link Type Private
Effects of Hot Plant Fuel Characteristics and Combustion on Asphalt Concrete Quality--May 2004 final_rpt_05-2004.pdf Final Report Public
Effects of Hot Plant Fuel Characteristics and Combustion on Asphalt Concrete Quality--Appendices final_rpt_appendices.pdf Final Report Public
Quarterly Progress Report: April 2003 qtrly_rpt_04-03.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
Effects of Hot Plant Fuel Characteristics and Combustion on Asphalt Concrete Quality--May 2004 exec_summary_05-2004.pdf Study Summary Public

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